27 February 2016

Business Intelligence: Myths - Business Intelligence is Complex

Business Intelligence

Introduction

    While looking over “Business Intelligence Concepts and Platform Capabilities” Coursera MOOC resources for Module 2 I run into two similar articles from Solutions Review, respectively Information Age. What caught my attention was the easiness with which the complexity of BI “myth” is approached in both columns.

    According to the two sources the capabilities of nowadays BI tools “enabled business users to easily identify and present trends in an impactful way” [1], and “do not require an expert at the helm” [2]. It became thus simpler for users to independently query data and create interactive reports and presentations [2]. In both columns one can read between the lines that the simplicity of using BI tools is equivalent with negating the complexity of BI, which from my point of view is false. In fact here are regarded especially the self-service BI tools, in trend nowadays, that allow users to easily perform ad-hoc analysis with a minimal involvement from IT. Self-service BI is only a subset of what BI for organizations means, and just a capability from the many BI capabilities an organization needs in theory, even if some organizations might use it extensively.

Beyond the Surface

    A BI tool is not a BI solution per se, even if many generic BI solutions for different systems are available out of the box. This is one of the biggest confusion managers, users and unfortunately also BI professionals make. A BI tool offers the technological basis for creating a BI infrastructure, though it comes with no guarantees. It takes a well-defined IT and business strategy, one or more successful projects, skillful developers and users in order to harness the BI investment.

    On the other side it’s also true that organizations can obtain results also from less, though BI doesn’t equates with any ad-hoc analysis performed by users, even if they use BI tools for this purpose. BI is not only about tools, reporting and revealing trends in the data. BI often implies a holistic knowledge about the business and certain data awareness, without which users will start aggregating and comparing apples with pears and wonder why they taste and look different.

    If everything were so simple then why so many BI projects fail to deliver what’s expected? Why so many managers complain that they don’t have the data they need, when they need them? Sure maybe the problem lies in over-complexifying the whole BI landscape and treating everything from a high-level, though that’s more likely not it.

It’s a Teamwork Knowledge Game

    BI is or needs to be monitoring and problem solving oriented. This requires a deep understanding about processes and business. There are business users and also BI professionals who don’t have the knowledge one needs in order to approach a business problem. One can see that from the premises they have, the questions they raise, the data they consider, the models they build, and the results.

    From a BI professional’s perspective, even if one has a broad knowledge about various businesses, one often lacks the insight in a given business. BI professionals can seldom provide adequate BI solutions without input and feedback from the business. Some BI professionals rely too much on their knowledge, same as the business sometimes expects a maximum output from BI professionals by providing a minimum of input.

    Considering the business users, quite often their focus and knowledge cover only the data boundaries of their department, while many problems extend over those boundaries. They know facts that are not necessarily reflected in the data. Even if they are closer to the data than other parties, they still lack some data-awareness (including statistical awareness) in order to approach problems.

    Somebody was saying ironically when talking about users’ data and problem solving skills - “not everybody is a Bill Gates or Steve Jobs”. Continuing the idea, one can’t expect users to act as such. For sure there are many business users who are better problem solvers than BI consultants, though on the other side one can’t expect that the average business user will have the same skillset as an experienced BI consultant. This is in fact one of the problems of self-service BI. Probably with time and effort organization will develop such resources, though some help from BI professionals will be still needed. Without a good cooperation between the business and BI professionals an organization might not have the hoped results when investing in BI

More on Complexity

    The complexity arises when one tries to make more with the data, especially the data found in raw form. Usually the complexity of raw data can be addressed by building a logical or physical model that allows easier consumption of data. Here is the point where the users find themselves overwhelmed, because for this is required a good knowledge of the physical data model and its semantics, the technical knowledge to build models and the skills to reengineer the logic available in the source systems. These are the themes BI professionals are supposed to excel in. Talking about models, they are the most difficult to build because they reflect various segments of the business, they reflect a breakdown of the complexity. It’s also the point where many BI projects fail as the built models don’t reflect the reality or aren’t capable to answer to business questions.

    Coming back to the two columns, I have to point out that the complexity of a subject or domain can’t be judged based on how easy is to approach basic tasks. The complexity lies typically when one goes beyond the basics, when one dives into details. In case of BI its complexity starts when one attempts mixing various technologies and knowledge domains to model and solve daily business problems in an integrated, holistic, aligned, consistent and cost-effective manner. The more the technologies, the knowledge domains and constraints one has to consider, the more complex the BI landscape and solutions become.

    On the other side this doesn’t mean that the BI infrastructure can’t be simplified, that BI can’t rely heavily or exclusively on self-service BI solutions. However for each strategy there are advantages and disadvantages and one more likely has to consider both sides of the coin in the process. And self-service BI has its own trade-offs, weaknesses that can be transformed in strengths with time.

Conclusion

   When one considers nowadays BI tools capabilities, ad-hoc analyses are relatively easy to perform and can lead to results, though such analyses don’t equate with BI and the simplicity with which they are performed don’t necessarily imply that BI is simple as a whole. When one considers the complexity of nowadays businesses, the more one dives in various problems a business has, the more complex the BI landscape seems. In the end it’s in each organization powers to simplify and harmonize its BI infrastructure to a degree that its business goals aren’t affected negatively.


Resources
[1] Information Age (2015) 5 Myths about Intelligence, by Ben Rossi, [Online] Available from: http://www.information-age.com/technology/information-management/123460271/5-myths-about-business-intelligence 
[2] SolutionsReview (2015) Top 5 Business Intelligence Myths Revealed, by Timothy King, [Online] Available from: http://solutionsreview.com/business-intelligence/top-5-business-intelligence-myths-revealed
[3] Gartner (2016) Magic Quadrant for Business Intelligence and Analytics Platforms, by Josh Parenteau, Rita L. Sallam, Cindi Howson, Joao Tapadinhas, Kurt Schlegel, Thomas W. Oestreich [Online] Available from: https://www.gartner.com/doc/reprints?id=1-2XXET8P&ct=160204&st=sb 
[4] Coursera (2016) Business Intelligence Concepts, Tools, and Applications MOOC, led by Jahangir Karimi, University of Colorado, [Online] Available from: https://www.coursera.org/learn/business-intelligence-tools

25 February 2016

Strategic Management: Benefit (Definitions)

"Something of value as perceived by a customer." (Steven Haines, "The Product Manager's Desk Reference", 2008)

"As it pertains to products and services, what problem a product or service solves or what need it fulfills for customers." (Gina Abudi & Brandon Toropov, "The Complete Idiot's Guide to Best Practices for Small Business", 2011)

"The improvement resulting from outcomes perceived and expressed in terms of advantages for the organization, such as decreases in operating costs or product failures and increases in profit or productivity." (Paul C Dinsmore et al, "Enterprise Project Governance", 2012)

"An outcome of actions, behaviors, products, or services that provide utility to the sponsoring organization as well as to the program's intended beneficiaries." (Project Management Institute, "The Standard for Program Management" 3rd Ed., 2013)

"A description of a product advantage written from the perspective of the customer. Often includes emotional aspects." (Pamela Schure & Brian Lawley, "Product Management For Dummies", 2017)

20 February 2016

Strategic Management: SWOT Analysis (Definitions)

"A scan of the business environment to identify the organization's strengths and weaknesses and the opportunities and threats it faces." (Teri Lund & Susan Barksdale, "10 Steps to Successful Strategic Planning", 2006)

"A general method used as an element of strategic planning. SWOT is an acronym for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. Within the context of Product Management, SWOT is used to synthesize the many elements of the business environment for a product or product line (as opposed to a corporate or divisional entity). The generalized quadrant structure of the SWOT model is used." (Steven Haines, "The Product Manager's Desk Reference", 2008)

"A method of analyzing a situation or business to determine whether it’s viable." (Sue Johnson & Gwen Moran, "The Complete Idiot's Guide To Business Plans", 2010)

"A method that enables companies to view strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats together." (Annetta Cortez & Bob Yehling, "The Complete Idiot's Guide® To Risk Management", 2010)

"A planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats involved in a particular strategic direction for your business." (Gina Abudi & Brandon Toropov, "The Complete Idiot's Guide to Best Practices for Small Business", 2011)

 "A type of analysis that provides companies with both internal and external factors that could affect the long-term success of the company." (DAMA International, "The DAMA Dictionary of Data Management", 2011)

"An analysis used to determine strength and weak sides of the performance of an organization and to identify opportunities and dangers in the form of weaknesses and both internal and external threats. The four attributes of SWOT are: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats." (International Qualifications Board for Business Analysis, "Standard glossary of terms used in Software Engineering", 2011)

"Involves the evaluation of strengths and weaknesses, which are internal factors, and opportunities and threats, which are external factors." (Linda Volonino & Efraim Turban, "Information Technology for Management" 8th Ed., 2011)

"Method of studying and identifying an organization's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats." (Leslie G Eldenburg & Susan K Wolcott, "Cost Management" 2nd Ed., 2011)

"This information gathering technique examines the project from the perspective of each project's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats to increase the breadth of the risks considered by risk management." (Cynthia Stackpole, "PMP Certification All-in-One For Dummies", 2011)

"A problem-solving or decision analysis technique in which strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats to the project or organization are examined." (Bonnie Biafore & Teresa Stover, "Your Project Management Coach: Best Practices for Managing Projects in the Real World", 2012)

"A SWOT analysis is an approach to developing strategy that begins by identifying an organization’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (hence SWOT). From these categories, an organization can identify ways to build on its strengths, improve its weaknesses, take advantage of opportunities, and minimize the potential impact of threats." (Laura Sebastian-Coleman, "Measuring Data Quality for Ongoing Improvement ", 2012)

"An analysis process highlighting strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats to an entity." (Joan C Dessinger, "Fundamentals of Performance Improvement" 3rd Ed., 2012)

"The analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of an organization, project, or option." (Project Management Institute, "Navigating Complexity: A Practice Guide", 2014)

"An analysis of the company’s strengths and weaknesses compared to the opportunities and threats in the market place." (Pamela Schure & Brian Lawley, "Product Management For Dummies", 2017)

"Analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of an organization, project, or option." (Project Management Institute, "A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide)", 2017)

"The main purpose of this analysis is to determine the extent to which an organisation 'fits' with the demands of its context." (Duncan Angwin & Stephen Cummings, "The Strategy Pathfinder 3rd Ed.", 2017)

"The SWOT framework classifies the factors relevant for a firm’s strategic decision making into four categories: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats." (Robert M Grant, "Contemporary Strategy Analysis" 10th Ed., 2018)

"Technique that reviews and analyses the internal strength and weakness of an organization, and the external opportunities and threats it faces" (ITIL)

13 February 2016

Strategic Management: Benchmarking (Definitions)

"The process of comparison in which one set of metrics comes from the entity being measured and the other set of metrics comes from averages for an industry, specific configuration, or other common attributes." (Janice M Roehl-Anderson, IT Best Practices for Financial Managers, 2010) 

Benchmarks: "Objective measures of performance, often available from industry trade associations." (Linda Volonino & Efraim Turban, "Information Technology for Management" 8th Ed., 2011)

"A systematic process of comparing an organization to other organizations for the purposes of identifying better work methods and determining best practices." (Joan C Dessinger, "Fundamentals of Performance Improvement" 3rd Ed., 2012)

"Benchmarking uses external and internal comparisons to plan for future improvements." (John R Schermerhorn Jr, "Management" 12th Ed., 2012)

"A point of reference for measurement." (Information Management)

"A technique in which an organization measures its performance against that of best-in-class organizations, determines how those organizations achieved their performance levels and uses the information to improve its own performance. Subjects that can be benchmarked include strategies, operations and processes." (American Society for Quality)

12 February 2016

Strategic Management: Business Impact Analysis (Definitions)

"The process of delineating the functions most critical to the survival of a business." (Yvette Ghormley, "Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery Plans", 2009)

"A management-level analysis which identifies the impacts of losing company resources. The BIA measures the effect of resource loss and escalating losses over time, in order to provide senior management with reliable data on which to base decisions concerning risk mitigation and continuity planning." (Mark S Merkow & Lakshmikanth Raghavan, "Secure and Resilient Software Development", 2010)

"A method or exercise to determine the impact of losing the support or availability of a resource." (Linda Volonino & Efraim Turban, "Information Technology for Management" 8th Ed., 2011)

"Aims to (a) identify critical business processes, stakeholders, assets, resources and internal/external dependencies and (b) assesses and evaluates potential damages or losses at business level that may be caused by a threat to IT landscape." (Ulrich Winkler & Wasif Gilani, "Business Continuity Management of Business Driven IT Landscapes", 2012)

"A process used to analyze the business and identify critical functions and services. The BIA also helps the organization determine the cost impact of losing these functions and services. Organizations use the results as part of an overall business continuity plan." (Darril Gibson, "Effective Help Desk Specialist Skills", 2014)

"The identification of services and products that are critical to the organization." (Manish Agrawal, "Information Security and IT Risk Management", 2014)

"The process of analysing activities and the effect that a business disruption might have upon them." (David Sutton, "Information Risk Management: A practitioner’s guide", 2014)

"An exercise that determines the impact of losing the support of any resource to an organization, establishes the escalation of that loss over time, identifies the minimum resources needed to recover, and prioritizes the recovery of processes and supporting systems." (Adam Gordon, "Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP CBK" 4th Ed., 2015)

"A functional analysis in which a team collects data, documents business functions, develops a hierarchy of business functions, and applies a classification scheme to indicate each individual function’s criticality level." (Shon Harris & Fernando Maymi, "CISSP All-in-One Exam Guide" 8th Ed., 2018)

"The analysis of an information system’s requirements, functions, and interdependencies used to characterize system contingency requirements and priorities in the event of a significant disruption." (William Stallings, "Effective Cybersecurity: A Guide to Using Best Practices and Standards", 2018)

"A business continuity management activity which is mainly intended for defining the core business functions, the recovery priorities regarding these functions and the corresponding time required for the resumption of each function." (Athanasios Podaras et al, "Regression-Based Recovery Time Predictions in Business Continuity Management: A Public College Case Study", 2021)

"Activity that identifies the VMF and their dependencies" (ITIL)

"An analysis of an information system’s requirements, functions, and interdependencies used to characterize system contingency requirements and priorities in the event of a significant disruption." (CNSSI 4009-2015)

10 February 2016

Strategic Management: Corporate Governance (Definitions)

"Corporate governance is concerned with holding the balance between economic and social goals and between individual and communal goals. The governance framework is there to encourage the efficient use of resources and equally to require accountability for the stewardship of those resources. The aim is to align as nearly as possible the interests of individuals, corporations and society." (Dominic Cadbury, UK, "Commission Report: Corporate Governance", 1992)

"The system by which business corporations are directed and controlled. The corporate governance structure specifies the distribution of rights and responsibilities among different participants in the corporation, such as the board of directors, managers, employees, shareholders, and other stakeholders, and spells out the rules and procedures for making decisions about corporate affairs." (Tilak Mitra et al, "SOA Governance", 2008)

"Rules and processses ensuring that the enterprise adheres to accepted ethical standards, best practices, and laws." (Linda Volonino & Efraim Turban, "Information Technology for Management" 8th Ed., 2011)

"This focuses on who the firm should serve, the distribution of power and relationships among different stakeholders, and the selection and conduct of senior management." (Duncan Angwin et al, "The Strategy Pathfinder: Core Concepts and Live Cases" 2nd Ed., 2011)

"Essentially, decision making and communications. The need for good governance stems from the need of organizations to make good decisions and to communicate them effectively. Often, when faced with poor outcomes, the organization needs to review how the decisions were made and then put into place structures that support better future decisions. It can be considered to encompass relationships among a company’s management, its board (or management team), its shareholders, and other stakeholders and to provide the structure through which the objectives of the company are set, as well as the means of attaining those objectives and monitoring performance." (Paul C Dinsmore et al, "Enterprise Project Governance", 2012)

"Corporate governance is a set of relationships framed by corporate bylaws, articles of association, charters, and applicable statutory or other legal rules and principles, between the board of directors, shareholders, and other stakeholders of a organization that outlines the relationship among these groups, sets rules how the organization should be managed, and sets its operational framework." (Christopher Donohue et al, "Foundations of Financial Risk: An Overview of Financial Risk and Risk-based Financial Regulation" 2nd Ed, 2015)

"This focuses on who the firm should serve, the distribution of power and relationships among different stakeholders, and the selection and conduct of senior management." (Duncan Angwin & Stephen Cummings, "The Strategy Pathfinder" 3rd Ed., 2017)

"The framework of rules, norms, and accepted practice established as an organizational infrastructure to enable strategic outcomes, accountability, transparency, oversight, and the management of data, risk, and relationships." (Kevin J Sweeney, "Re-Imagining Data Governance", 2018)

"The system by which companies are directed and controlled." (Robert M Grant, "Contemporary Strategy Analysis" 10th Ed., 2018)

"The systems and controls in place to protect the rights of corporate stakeholders." (Donald DePamphilis, "Mergers, Acquisitions, and Other Restructuring Activities" 10th Ed., 2019)

"The tangible and intangible way firms behave and relate with stakeholders. Many nations have codified the behavior and accountability expected of directors to provide equitable treatment all stakeholders." (Sue Milton, "Data Privacy vs. Data Security", 2021)

"The system by which enterprises are directed and controlled. The board of directors is responsible for the governance of their enterprise. It consists of the leadership and organizational structures and processes that ensure the enterprise sustains and extends strategies and objectives." (ISACA)

Strategic Management: Recovery Time Objective (RTO)

"Following a disaster, the amount of time that a system may be offline before it must be up and running." (Tom Petrocelli, "Data Protection and Information Lifecycle Management", 2005)

"The period of time within which systems, applications, or functions must be recovered after an outage (e.g., one business day). RTOs are often used as the basis for the development of recovery strategies, and as a determinant as to whether or not to implement the recovery strategies during a disaster situation." (Disaster Recovery Journal & DRI, 2007)

"This is a measure indicating how quickly after an outage IT infrastructure needs to be recovered to continue operations. The smaller the number, the quicker the solution must be able to be recovered." (Martin Oberhofer et al, "The Art of Enterprise Information Architecture", 2010)

"The intent to recover lost applications, within specific time limitations, to assure a certain level of operational continuity. Expresses the amount of time a business will tolerate the computing system (hardware, software, services) to be offline." (DAMA International, "The DAMA Dictionary of Data Management", 2011)

"An expression of the amount of time a business will tolerate the computing system (hardware, software, DBMS, services) to be offline." (Craig S Mullins, "Database Administration", 2012)

"in disaster recovery planning, the expected amount of time between the disaster, and when services are restored." (Bill Holtsnider & Brian D Jaffe, "IT Manager's Handbook" 3rd Ed., 2012)

"In disaster recovery planning, the total time one can allow for their systems to be offline." (IBM, "Informix Servers 12.1", 2014)

"The earliest time period and a service level within which a business process must be restored after a disaster to avoid unacceptable consequences." (Adam Gordon, "Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP CBK" 4th Ed., 2015)

"The target time set for resumption of product, service, or activity delivery after an incident. It is the maximum allowable downtime that can occur without severely impacting the recovery of operations or the time in which systems, applications, or business functions must be recovered after an outage (for example, the point in time at which a process can no longer be inoperable)." (William Stallings, "Effective Cybersecurity: A Guide to Using Best Practices and Standards", 2018)

09 February 2016

Strategic Management: Critical Success Factor (Definitions)

"A brief listing of what should be monitored closely on an ongoing basis to ensure that the project is proceeding adequately. Also known as the project vital signs or metrics." (Timothy J  Kloppenborg et al, "Project Leadership", 2003)

"Those things which must go right for the organization to achieve its mission." (Tilak Mitra et al, "SOA Governance", 2008)

[success criteria:] "According to cybernetic theory, in a feedback loop the set point that determines the extent to which a system process meets its process objective. This must be expressed in terms of either a 'Minimum value' or a 'Maximum value' of an attribute." (David C Hay, "Data Model Patterns: A Metadata Map", 2010)

"An element that is necessary for an organization or project to achieve its mission." (Janice M Roehl-Anderson, "IT Best Practices for Financial Managers", 2010)

[success criteria:] "A measurable result the project has to deliver in order for the customer to say the project is a success." (Bonnie Biafore, "Successful Project Management: Applying Best Practices and Real-World Techniques with Microsoft® Project", 2011)

"Activities that your business undertakes with the aim of meeting strategic long-term goals. CSFs are measured with performance indicators." (Gina Abudi & Brandon Toropov, "The Complete Idiot's Guide to Best Practices for Small Business", 2011)

"One of the few most important prerequisite conditions necessary for an enterprise to reach its goals." (DAMA International, "The DAMA Dictionary of Data Management", 2011)

"The most essential factors that must go right or be closely tracked in order to ensure an organization's survival and success." (Linda Volonino & Efraim Turban, "Information Technology for Management" 8th Ed., 2011)

[success criteria:] "Specific and unequivocal statements that indicate how the project manager or project sponsor will know that a project achieved its goal, often reflecting strategic business goals." (Bonnie Biafore & Teresa Stover, "Your Project Management Coach: Best Practices for Managing Projects in the Real World", 2012)

"The requirements for strategic success in a particular industry at a particular point in time." (Duncan Angwin & Stephen Cummings, "The Strategy Pathfinder" 3rd Ed., 2017)

"Sources of competitive advantage within an industry." (Robert M Grant, "Contemporary Strategy Analysis"10th Ed., 2018)

"The key things that the organization must do extremely well to overcome today’s problems and the roadblocks to meeting the Mission and Vision Statements." (H James Harrington & William S Ruggles, "Project Management for Performance Improvement Teams", 2018)

"An element necessary for an organization or project to achieve its mission. Critical success factors are the critical factors or activities required for ensuring the success." (ISTQB)

"something that must happen if a process, project, plan or service is to succeed" (ITIL)

07 February 2016

Strategic Management: Culture (Definitions)

"(a) A perception of the critical success factors shared by a unit of the firm. (b) Norms and values applied to selection of strategic projects." (H Igor Ansoff et al, "Implanting Strategic Management" 3rd Ed., 1990)

"(1) The shared methods in which people of an organization think and behave. (2) The 'personality' of an organization." (Margaret Y Chu, "Blissful Data ", 2004)

"In the Framework for Information Quality, a company’s attitudes, values, customs, practices, and social behavior, including both official policies and unofficial 'ways of doing things', 'how things get done', and 'how decisions get made'." (Danette McGilvray, "Executing Data Quality Projects", 2008)

"The collective set of attitudes, activities, and behaviors that, collectively, tend to give an organization its personality." (Steven Haines, "The Product Manager's Desk Reference", 2008)

[adaptive culture:] "Adaptive cultures engage in at least five practices. They (1) name the elephants in the room, (2) share responsibility for the organization’s future, (3) exercise independent judgment, (4) develop leadership capacity, and (5) institutionalize reflection and continuous learning." (Alexander Grashow et al, "The Practice of Adaptive Leadership", 2009)

[participatory culture:] "An environment in which information is made available to support individuals in making appropriate decisions, and where decisions are shifted to the most appropriate location in the organization so that those affected by a decision participate in, or are represented in, the process of making it." (Sally A Miller et al, "People CMM: A Framework for Human Capital Management" 2nd Ed., 2009)

"This is the name given to the collection of basic assumptions, values, norms and artefacts that are shared by and influence the behaviour of an organisation’s members." (Bernard Burnes, "Managing change : a strategic approach to organisational dynamics" 5th Ed., 2009)

"Includes the customary beliefs, forms of expression, and material traits of a particular racial group situated within certain geographical location and within certain time." (Irina Kondratova & Ilia Goldfarb, "Culturally Appropriate Web User Interface Design Study: Research Methodology and Results", 2011)

[corporate culture:] "A collection of beliefs, expectations, and values learned and shared by a corporation’s members and transmitted from one generation of employees to another." (Thomas L Wheelen & J David Hunger., "Strategic management and business policy: toward global sustainability" 13th Ed., 2012)

"A shared system of values, beliefs, and behaviors that characterize a group of organization." (Joan C Dessinger, "Fundamentals of Performance Improvement" 3rd Ed., 2012)

"Distinctive heritage shared by a group of people. It passes on beliefs, norms, and customs." (Barry Berman & Joel R Evans, "Retail Management: A Strategic Approach" 12th Ed., 2013)

"The set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterize a company or an organization." (Jim Davis & Aiman Zeid, "Business Transformation: A Roadmap for Maximizing Organizational Insights", 2014)

"The beliefs, customs, practices, and social behavior of a particular nation or people; a group of people whose shared beliefs and practices identify a particular place, class, or time to which they belong; a particular set of attitudes that characterizes a group of people." (Ken Sylvester, "Negotiating in the Leadership Zone", 2015)

"defined as a set of shared attitudes, values, goals and practices that characterize an institution, organization or group." (Thomas C Wilson, "Value and Capital Management", 2015)

"An organization’s values, traditions, behavioral norms, symbols, and social characteristics." (Robert M Grant, "Contemporary Strategy Analysis" 10th Ed., 2018)

"Is the set of assumptions, beliefs, values, and norms shared by an organization's members." (Justína Mikulášková et al, "Spiral Management: New Concept of the Social Systems Management", 2020)

"A set of shared values and beliefs that drive behavior." (Forrester)

"set of values shared by a group of people, including expectation about how people should behave, their ideas, beliefs and practices" (ITIL)

06 February 2016

Strategic Management: Stakeholder (Definitions)

"In the CMMI Product Suite, a group or individual that is affected by or is in some way accountable for the outcome of an undertaking. Stakeholders may include project members, suppliers, customers, end users, and others." (Sandy Shrum et al, "CMMI®: Guidelines for Process Integration and Product Improvement", 2003)

"Individuals and organizations that are involved in or possibly affected by the data warehouse project activities." (Margaret Y Chu, "Blissful Data ", 2004)

"Someone with an interest in the outcome of a project, either because he or she has funded it, will use it, or will be affected by it." (Ken Schwaber, "Agile Project Management with Scrum", 2004)

"A group or individual affected by, or in some way accountable for, the outcome of an activity or process. Stakeholders may include the project team, suppliers, customers, purchasers, end users, and others." (Richard D Stutzke, "Estimating Software-Intensive Systems: Projects, Products, and Processes", 2005)

"a role that is concerned with the quality and content of a work product." (Bruce P Douglass, "Real-Time Agility: The Harmony/ESW Method for Real-Time and Embedded Systems Development", 2009)

"Anyone who has a stake in technical training, is affected by technical training or the problem it will address, or can assist with technical training." (Bettina M Davis & Wendy L Combsand, "Demystifying Technical Training: Partnership, Strategy, and Execution", 2009)

"Person or organization (e.g., customer, sponsor, performing organization, or the public) that is actively involved in the project, or whose interests may be positively or negatively affected by execution or completion of the project. A stakeholder may also exert influence over the project and its deliverables." (Project Management Institute, "Practice Standard for Project Estimating", 2010)

"An organization, person, process, or system that can be affected by a change to a system or process." (DAMA International, "The DAMA Dictionary of Data Management", 2011)

"An individual participant or member of a business function, department, or group charged with, and responsible for, performing tasks or activities as part of a business process." (Carl F Lehmann, "Strategy and Business Process Management", 2012)

"An individual, group, or organization who may affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by a decision, activity, or outcome of a project, program, or portfolio." (Project Management Institute, "The Standard for Portfolio Management" 3rd Ed., 2012)

"Any individual, group, or organization that can affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by an initiative (program, project, activity, risk)." (Paul C Dinsmore et al, "Enterprise Project Governance", 2012)

"Any person with a vested interest in the project. Project stakeholders include the project sponsor, project manager, team members, and end users of the project result." (Bonnie Biafore & Teresa Stover, "Your Project Management Coach: Best Practices for Managing Projects in the Real World", 2012)

"Anyone with an interest in your project – whether affected by its outcome or process, or with an ability to affect its outcome or process." (Mike Clayton, "Brilliant Project Leader", 2012)

"Individuals who have varying levels of commitment to a project or program for a given community or setting." (Carol A Brown, "Using Logic Models for Program Planning in K20 Education", 2013)

"Any individual or entity that has an influence on or is being impacted upon (directly or indirectly) by the project." (Chartered Institute of Building, "Code of Practice for Project Management for Construction and Development, 5th Ed.", 2014)

"Any party who affects, or is affected by, a project or activity (within and external to an organization). For an internal audit function, stakeholders include the board and audit committee, chief executive office, senior management, audit clients, and the external auditors." (Sally-Anne Pitt, "Internal Audit Quality", 2014)

"Individual, team, or organization that has an interest in or is affected by the result of architectural change." (Gilbert Raymond & Philippe Desfray, "Modeling Enterprise Architecture with TOGAF", 2014)

"Someone that has a vested interest in a project. Stakeholders are often high-level managers or executives with authority to resolve problems within a project." (Darril Gibson, "Effective Help Desk Specialist Skills", 2014)

"A stakeholder is someone with an interest in the future of a business, enterprise, or organization, and usually includes individual customers, borrowers, depositors, investors, employees, shareholders, regulators, and the public." (Christopher Donohue et al, "Foundations of Financial Risk: An Overview of Financial Risk and Risk-based Financial Regulation, 2nd Ed", 2015)

"Someone who has a stake in the outcome of the project. Typically, this includes users, customers (if those are different from users), sponsors, managers, and development team members." (Rod Stephens, "Beginning Software Engineering", 2015)

"Any person or organization who is affected by the opportunity and who can affect the shape of the opportunity itself." (Paul H Barshop, "Capital Projects", 2016)

"A person in the organization who has a vested interest in a project or activity and the outcomes." (Jonathan Ferrar et al, "The Power of People: Learn How Successful Organizations Use Workforce Analytics To Improve Business Performance", 2017)

"A person, a group, or an organization that has interest or concern in an organization. Stakeholders can affect or be affected by an organization’s actions, objectives, and policies. Some examples of key stakeholders are creditors, directors, employees, government (and its agencies), owners (shareholders), suppliers, unions, and the community from which the business draws its resources." (William Stallings, "Effective Cybersecurity: A Guide to Using Best Practices and Standards", 2018)

"An individual, group, or organization that may affect or be affected by project work, including decisions, activities, and outcome or deliverables. This applies to a project, program, and portfolio." (Cate McCoy & James L Haner, "CAPM Certified Associate in Project Management Practice Exams", 2018)

"In software development, a stakeholder is a person who has a vested interest in the software being developed. For example customers and users are stakeholders." (Alex Thomas, "Natural Language Processing with Spark NLP", 2020)

"a person or organisation that can affect, be affected by, or perceive themselves to be affected by a decision or activity" (ISO Guide 73:2009)

"all people who have interest in an organization, project, service, etc." (ITIL)

"Any person who has an interest in an IT project. Project stakeholders are individuals and organizations that are actively involved in the project, or whose interests may be affected as a result of project execution or project completion. Stakeholders can exercise control over both the immediate system operational characteristics, as well as over long-term system lifecycle considerations (such as portability, lifecycle costs, environmental considerations, and decommissioning of the system)." (IQBBA)

04 February 2016

Strategic Management: Corporate Strategy (Definitions)

"Corporate strategy is the pattern of decisions in a company that determines and reveals its objectives, purposes, or goals, produces the principal policies and plans for achieving those goals, and defines the range of businesses the company is to pursue, the kind of economic and human organization it is or intends to be, and the nature of the economic and noneconomic contribution it intends to make to its shareholders, employees, customers, and communities. […] Corporate strategy defines the businesses in which a company will compete, preferably in a way that focuses resources to convert distinctive competence into competitive advantage." (Kenneth R Andrews, The Concept of Corporate Strategy, 1980)

"Concerns the scope of the product markets, industries and geographies addressed by the firm as a whole, the boundaries of the firm, and how to manage that scope in a way that adds value." (Duncan Angwin & Stephen Cummings, "The Strategy Pathfinder" 3rd Ed., 2017)

"A firm’s decisions and intentions with regard to the scope of its activities (its choices in relation to the industries, national markets, and vertical activities within which it participates) and the resource allocation among these." (Robert M Grant, "Contemporary Strategy Analysis, 10th Ed.", 2018)

"A plan that guides the activities and resource allocation required to deliver intended experiences that meet or exceed customer expectations in accordance with the goals of the organization." (Forrester,)
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