30 July 2014

Performance Management: Feedback (Definitions)

"The return of information about the status of a process. Example: annual performance reviews return information to an employee about the quality of his or her work." (Virginia Anderson & Lauren Johnson, "Systems Thinking Basics: From Concepts to Casual Loops", 1997)

[360° feedback:] "A performance appraisal system that elicits input from an employee's boss, peers, and subordinates." (Dale Furtwengler, "Ten Minute Guide to Performance Appraisals", 2000)

"Information concerning the correctness of one's performance on a learning task or question. May also include explanations to guide learners to a correct response." (Ruth C Clark, "Building Expertise: Cognitive Methods for Training and Performance Improvement", 2008)

[explanatory feedback:] "Instructional responses to student answers to practice exercises that tell the learners whether they are correct or incorrect and also provide the rationale or a hint guiding the learners to a correct answer." ( Ruth C Clark, "Building Expertise: Cognitive Methods for Training and Performance Improvement", 2008)

[instructional feedback:] "Responses given by a trainer or program that may correct and/or offer explanations to learner responses to practice assignments." (Ruth C Clark, "Building Expertise: Cognitive Methods for Training and Performance Improvement", 2008)

[360° feedback] "A multi-source assessment that taps the collective wisdom of those who work with an individual, including supervisors, peers, direct reports, and internal and external customers." (Joan C Dessinger, "Fundamentals of Performance Improvement" 3rd Ed., 2012)

"Information provided by others designed to help people adjust their behavior, continue successful performance, or establish goals." (Joan C Dessinger, "Fundamentals of Performance Improvement" 3rd Ed., 2012)

"A process in which the effect or output of an action is 'returned' (fed back) to modify the next action." (Project Management Institute, "Navigating Complexity: A Practice Guide", 2014)

[peer feedback:] "A comment given by other learners on the learner’s response to an engagement activity. Peer feedback should be guided either by training or by a template. Peer feedback has been shown to promote learning of the individual giving the feedback." (Ruth C Clark & Richard E Mayer, "e-Learning and the Science of Instruction", 2016)

[normative feedback:] "An evaluation (often a grade) that compares the learner’s outcome with the outcomes of others. A common example is 'grading on the curve'. Because it directs attention to learners’ egos, normative feedback should be avoided." (Ruth C Clark & Richard E Mayer, "e-Learning and the Science of Instruction", 2016)

"Information concerning the correctness of one’s performance on a learning task or question. Effective feedback includes an explanation for correct and incorrect responses and should direct attention to the task or task process rather than the ego." (Ruth C Clark & Richard E Mayer, "e-Learning and the Science of Instruction", 2016)

"A reaction or response to a particular process or activity." (Project Management Institute, "Project Manager Competency Development Framework" 3rd Ed., 2017)

[360° feedback:] "The type of feedback in which project team members, project sponsors, and other stakeholders are surveyed anonymously in regard to the project manager's performance. This can be used to assess baseline competence in order to complete a competence gap analysis and create a development or training plan." (PMI, "Project Manager Competency Development Framework" 3rd Ed., 2017)

"Praising an employee when something good was accomplished (positive) and telling an employee when results are not up to expectations (constructive)." (Fred MacKenzie, "7 Paths to Managerial Leadership", 2016)

29 July 2014

Performance Management: Pareto Principle (Definitions)

"A rule that posits that 80 percent of business activity comes from about 20 percent of the customers or clients. Named for Vilfredo Pareto, an Italian economist." (Robert McCrie, "Security Operations Management 2nd Ed.", 2006)

"The general observation that a small amount of effort can derive a great amount of rewards. Also known as the 80/20 rule because it often is stated as 80 percent of the results come from 20 percent of the effort." (Craig S Mullins, "Database Administration: The Complete Guide to DBA Practices and Procedures" 2nd Ed., 2012)

"Also known as the 80/20 rule, Pareto’s principle holds that a small number of causes may account for the vast majority of observed instances. For example, a small number of rich people account for the majority of wealth. Likewise, a small number of diseases account for the vast majority of human illnesses. A small number of children account for the majority of the behavioral problems encountered in a classroom. A small number of states or provinces contain the majority of the population of a country. A small number of books, compared with the total number of published books, account for the majority of book sales. Sets of data that follow Pareto’s principle are often said to follow a Zipf distribution, or a power law distribution. These types of distributions are not tractable by standard statistical descriptors. For example, simple measurements, such as average and standard deviation, have virtually no practical meaning when applied to Zipf distributions. Furthermore, the Gaussian distribution does not apply, and none of the statistical inferences built upon an assumption of a Gaussian distribution will hold on data sets that observe Pareto’s principle." (Jules H Berman, "Principles of Big Data: Preparing, Sharing, and Analyzing Complex Information", 2013)

"In the Dynamic Systems Development Method, the assumption that 80-percent of an application’s features will take 20-percent of the project’s total time to implement. (The 80/20-rule often applies to other situations, too. For example, 80-percent of the bugs are usually contained in 20-percent of the code.)" (Rod Stephens, "Beginning Software Engineering", 2015)

"Better known as the 80/20 rule, this observation is that 20% of things will make 80% of difference, i.e. 20% of customers account for 80% of profits (and vice versa)." (Duncan Angwin & Stephen Cummings, "The Strategy Pathfinder" 3rd Ed., 2017)

"Doctrine which shows that approx. 20% of causes create 80% of problems. Also known as 80/20 rule." (Albert Lester, "Project Management, Planning and Control" 7th Ed., 2017)

"Sometimes called the Pareto distribution, the notion that to be strategic organisations should focus on the 20% of the business/customers/suppliers/stakeholders that make 80% of the difference to the business. The potential weakness of using this logic is that it may not adequately reflect dynamic situations." (Duncan Angwin & Stephen Cummings, "The Strategy Pathfinder" 3rd Ed., 2017)

"A general rule of thumb that suggests that 80 percent of the cost comes from 20 percent of the cost factors, or that 80 percent of the value is generated by 20 percent of the people. Also called the 80/20 rule. Used to guide system designers to focus on the aspects that matter most to outcome." (O Sami Saydjari, "Engineering Trustworthy Systems: Get Cybersecurity Design Right the First Time", 2018)

25 July 2014

Performance Management: Brainstorming (Definitions)

"A group of people working together to generate ideas." (Timothy J  Kloppenborg et al, "Project Leadership", 2003)

"A creative technique used to come up with ideas or concepts. In Product Management, brainstorming can be used for product ideation or general problem solving." (Steven Haines, "The Product Manager's Desk Reference", 2008)

"A general data gathering and creativity technique that can be used to identify risks, ideas, or solutions to issues by using a group of team members or subject matter experts." (For Dummies, "PMP Certification All-in-One For Dummies" 2nd Ed., 2013)

"A group technique for discovering creative solutions to a problem." (Rod Stephens, "Beginning Software Engineering", 2015)

"A problem-solving meeting with specific rules intended to generate a wide range of ideas." (Pamela Schure & Brian Lawley, "Product Management For Dummies", 2017)

"A general data gathering and creativity technique that can be used to identify risks, ideas, or solutions to issues by using a group of team members or subject-matter experts." (Cynthia Stackpole, "PMP® Certification All-in-One For Dummies", 2011)

"An idea generation process in which individuals or groups are instructed to generate ideas without criticizing or censoring themselves or one another." (Rachel Heinen et al, "Tools for the Process: Technology to Support Creativity and Innovation", 2015)

"A technique that helps a team to generate ideas" (ITIL)

23 July 2014

Performance Management: Practice (Definitions)

"Structured opportunities for the learner to engage with the content by responding to a question or taking an action to solve a problem. Also called interaction." ( Ruth C Clark, "Building Expertise: Cognitive Methods for Training and Performance Improvement", 2008)

"a set of work tasks performed to realize a specific development intent." (Bruce P Douglass, "Real-Time Agility: The Harmony/ESW Method for Real-Time and Embedded Systems Development", 2009)

"Description of an activity essential to, in part or in whole, accomplish a goal of the process area. A practice is a subprocess of a process area that contributes to achieving a process area goal." (Sally A Miller et al, "People CMM: A Framework for Human Capital Management" 2nd Ed., 2009)

"A repeatedly performed, customary way of doing something." (DAMA International, "The DAMA Dictionary of Data Management", 2011)

"A specific type of professional or management activity that contributes to the execution of a process and that may employ one or more techniques and tools. " (Cynthia Stackpole, "PMP® Certification All-in-One For Dummies", 2011)

"Structured opportunities for the learner to engage with the content by responding to a question or taking an action to solve a problem. Effective practice exercises prompt psychological engagement that leads to achievement of learning goals." (Ruth C Clark & Richard E Mayer, "e-Learning and the Science of Instruction", 2016)

"A specific type of professional or management activity that contributes to the execution of a process and that may employ one or more techniques and tools." (Project Management Institute, "A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide )", 2017)

 "a way of working or a way in which work must be done" (ITIL)

21 July 2014

Performance Management: Competency (Definitions)

"An ability to perform business processes, which are supported by necessary available resources, practices, and activities, allowing the organization to offer products/services." (Jiri Hodík et al, "e-Cat for Partner Profiling and Competency Management Tool", 2008)

"Present or target capacity of a group or an individual to perform a cognitive, affective, social or psychomotor skill with regard to certain area of knowledge and in a specific context. The context consists in defining whether the skill can be attributed to the knowledge in a guided or autonomous way, in simple or complex, familiar or new situations, in a global or partial, persistent or sporadic manner." (Gilbert Paquette et al, "Principled Construction and Reuse of Learning Designs", Handbook of Research on Learning Design and Learning Objects: Issues, Applications, and Technologies, 2009)

"The ability to do something successfully or efficiently, often broken down into skills, knowledge, and attitude." (Alfonso Urquiza, "Competency Management Information Systems", 2009)

"The underlying characteristics of an individual (a motive, trait, skill, aspect of one’s self image or social role, or a body of knowledge) which underlie performance or behavior at work." (Jorge Valdés-Conca & Lourdes Canós-Darós, "B2E Relationships, Intranets, and Competency Management", 2009)

"A cluster of knowledges, understandings, skills, attitudes, values, and interests that are required for the performance of a function. In this case the function would be to be competent in counseling adult learners." (John A Henschke, "Counseling in an Andragogical Approach", 2012)

"A specific, identifiable, definable, and measurable knowledge, skill, ability, and/or other deployment-related characteristic (e.g., attitude, behavior, physical ability) which a human resource may possess and which is necessary for, or material to, the performance of an activity within a specific business context." Nancy B Hastings & Karen L Rasmussen, "Designing and Developing Competency-Based Education Courses Using Standards", 2017)

"Competency is the ability to demonstrate a specified level of knowledge or skill." (Christine K S Irvine & Jonathan M Kevan, "Competency-Based Education in Higher Education", 2017)

"Expected capacity the learner should build to be successful in his/her career. Competency is written in broader terms and are not directly measurable." (Devrim Ozdemir & Carla Stebbins, "A Framework for the Evaluation of Competency-Based Curriculum", 2017)

"Competencies are specific knowledge-based skills, abilities, or expertise in a subject area. When these skillsets are shared across a profession, they are said to have core competencies." (Valerie A Storey et al, "Developing a Clinical Leadership Pipeline: Planning, Operation, and Sustainability", 2019)

"Multidimensional construct which represents what a person is capable of doing. It includes knowledge, skills, experience, abilities, values, attitudes, personality traits, among others." (Geraldina Silveyra et al, "Proposal of a Comprehensive Model of Teachable Entrepreneurship Competencies (M-TEC): Literature Review and Theoretical Foundations", 2019)

"The ability to act successfully on the basis of practical experience, skill, and knowledge in solving professional problems. Is understood as a formal system characteristic, which is described as a set of requirements for the knowledge, skills and qualities of the employee for a function, position or role in the organization." (Vitaly V Martynov et al, "CSRP: System Design Technology of Training Information Support of Competent Professionals", 2019)

"A guiding tool including knowledge, abilities, distinguished personal attributes, and behaviours for higher performance contributing to achieving strategic goals of the company." (Mustafa K Topcu, "Competency Framework for the Fourth Industrial Revolution", 2020)

"Proficiency or mastery of identified knowledge, skills or abilities." (Ernst Jan van Weperen et al, "Sustainable Entrepreneurial Thinking: Developing Pro-Active, Globally Aware Citizens", 2020)

"Capacity to perform something in an effective manner. Involves individual attitudes, knowledge, and skills necessary, and behaviors." (Christiane Molina, "Management Education for a Sustainable World: Aiming for More Than Business as Usual", 2021)

"Competency refers to observable and measurable skills that integrate the knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes required of a professional in the practice of his specialty." (Maria M P Calimag, "The ePortfolio: Technology-Enhanced Authentic Assessment in the Continuum of Medical Education", 2021)

"The sum of knowledge, skills, values, attitudes, and individual characteristics that enable a person to perform actions successfully." (Almudena Eizaguirre et al, "A Methodological Proposal to Analyse the Process for Implementing Competency-Based Learning (CBL) in a Business School", 2021)

15 July 2014

Performance Management: Performance Management (Definitions)

 "The process of establishing objective criteria against which unit and individual performance can be measured, providing performance feedback, managing performance problems, rewarding and recognizing outstanding performance, and enhancing performance continuously." (Sally A Miller et al, "People CMM: A Framework for Human Capital Management 2nd Ed.", 2009)

"These help to monitor business metrics and key performance indicators (KPIs)." (Linda Volonino & Efraim Turban, "Information Technology for Management 8th Ed", 2011)

"The application of technology, process, and psychology to manage behavior and results and facilitate the delivery of strategic and tactical objectives." (Evan Stubbs, "Delivering Business Analytics: Practical Guidelines for Best Practice", 2013)

"An ongoing process where a manager and a team member work together to create a work environment that enables people to work to their full potential. It includes feedback and development components and mechanisms for dealing with underperformance." (Sally-Anne Pitt, "Internal Audit Quality", 2014)

"The application of technology, process, and psychology to manage behavior and results and facilitate the delivery of strategic and tactical objectives." (Evan Stubbs, "Big Data, Big Innovation", 2014)

"The organization's effort to track, report on, and distribute its business performance information to support decision making." (Jim Davis & Aiman Zeid, "Business Transformation: A Roadmap for Maximizing Organizational Insights", 2014)

"Performance management measures the performance of a business unit or business through a set of key performance indicators. Performance management frameworks help to provide the key perspectives of performance and the associated metrics that need to be monitored and analyzed." (Saumya Chaki, "Enterprise Information Management in Practice", 2015)

"The process of defining and monitoring the work of individuals or a team to ensure the best possible results." (Christina Lovelock & Debra Paul, "Delivering Business Analysis: The BA Service handbook", 2019)

14 July 2014

Performance Management: Training (Definitions)

"Formal and informal learning options, which may include in-class training, informal mentoring, Web-based training, guided self-study, and formalized on-the-job training programs. The learning options selected for each situation are based on an assessment of the need for training and the performance gap to be addressed." (Sandy Shrum et al, "CMMI®: Guidelines for Process Integration and Product Improvement", 2003)

[cross-training:] "When an employee in one primary job task is trained in another or other tasks." (Robert McCrie, "Security Operations Management" 2nd Ed., 2006)

"An umbrella term to include training, development, and education, where training is learning that pertains to the job, development is learning for the growth of the individual that is not related to a specific job, and education is learning to prepare the individual but not related to a specific job." (Richard Caladine, "Taxonomies for Technology", 2008)

"Learning is a personal construction of knowledge. In order to learn a particular concept or skill, the learner needs to consider how new information relates to the existing understandings that the learner has. The process of sifting through available information in order to select the most appropriate information to use in knowledge construction requires the skills of information literacy. Good information literacy skills are a prerequisite for effective learning." (Carmel McNaught, "Information Literacy in the 21st Century", 2008)

"Activities undertaken to ensure that all individuals have the knowledge and skills required to perform their assignments." (Sally A Miller et al, "People CMM: A Framework for Human Capital Management" 2nd Ed., 2009)

"It is the process of fixing meaning to stimulus. It is the process of constructing new knowledge. Learning should proceed from learner’s sense of vocation, occur in settings or activity systems where the function and purposes of the learning are clear and explicit, focus primarily on developing the capacity to do and where learners seek to accomplish goals. In addition, learning should involve sharing meaning and building connection among meanings and different renditions of the meaning." (Kisilu M Kitainge, "Challenges of Training Motor Vehicle Mechanics for Changing World Contexts and Emergent Working Conditions: Cases of Kenya and Australia", 2009)

"Learning occurs through a cognitive process that occurs in the mind of the individual or, in contrast, learning occurs through a process of socialization and increasing participation rather than formal inquiry." (Mary F Ziegler, "Three Theoretical Perspectives on Informal Learning at Work", 2009)

"The process to obtain or transfer knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to carry out a specific activity or task" (Bettina M Davis & Wendy L Combsand, "Demystifying Technical Training: Partnership, Strategy, and Execution", 2009)

[business training: "Training on concepts that teach skills to understand and work effectively within a company." (Bettina M Davis & Wendy L Combsand, "Demystifying Technical Training: Partnership, Strategy, and Execution", 2009)

[IT training:] "Training on content involving the development, maintenance, and use of computer systems, software, and networks." (Bettina M Davis & Wendy L Combsand, "Demystifying Technical Training: Partnership, Strategy, and Execution", 2009)

[non-technical training:] "Training that is not technical training, for example, personal effectiveness or business training." (Bettina M Davis & Wendy L Combsand, "Demystifying Technical Training: Partnership, Strategy, and Execution", 2009)

[cross-training:] "Enables personnel to learn tasks associated with more than one job." (Barry Berman & Joel R Evans, "Retail Management: A Strategic Approach" 12th Ed., 2013)

"Programs used to teach new (and existing) personnel how best to perform their jobs or how to improve themselves." (Barry Berman & Joel R Evans, "Retail Management: A Strategic Approach" 12th Ed., 2013)

"Is a multidimensional process that results in a relatively enduring change in a person or persons, and consequently how that person or persons will perceive the world and reciprocally respond to its affordances physically, psychologically, and socially. The process of learning has as its foundation the systemic, dynamic, and interactive relation between the nature of the leaner and the objective of the learning as ecologically situated in a given time and place as well as over time." (Francisco Cua, "Authentic Education: Affording, Engaging, and Reflecting", 2014)

[on-the-job training:] "Training from an experienced employee to a new employee while working on the job. This is a form of one-on-one training." (Darril Gibson, "Effective Help Desk Specialist Skills", 2014)

"It can be defined as a mental activities by means of which knowledge, skill attitude are acquired, retained and utilized. It is defined it as changes in the particular form, change in behaviour tendency, resulting in relatively permanent practice. It involves that the changes, which occurs as a result of reinforced practice that gives new meaning and orientation. This leads to acquisition of new skills, behaviour tendency that is permanent." (Monsuru B Muraina, "Relevance of the Use of Instructional Materials in Teaching and Pedagogical Delivery: An Overview", 2015)

"Learning is a dynamic concept; it refers to the various processes by which skills and knowledge are acquired by individuals and, through them by organizations. Learning encompasses processes and outcomes as well as both, individual and organizational levels; it´s use in theory emphasizes the continually changing nature of organizations, and that goes beyond the view of organizations as bundles of resources. Learning includes the capacity to create new capabilities both internally and by acquiring knowledge from sources external to the firm. It also includes the methods for the diffusion of the new knowledge throughout the firm organization." (Arturo T Vargas & Javier J Villazul, "Learning and Innovation in Multinational Companies from Emerging Economies: The Case of CEMEX", 2016)

"The process of improving performance in one or more aspects of an employee’s work output through additional knowledge and or skill." (Fred MacKenzie, "7 Paths to Managerial Leadership", 2016)

"Learning is the act of gaining new knowledge, behaviors, skills, or ability. It may be regarded as a process, rather than a collection of factual and procedural knowledge. Human learning may occur as part of education, professional development, or training." (Chunfang Zhou, "Developing Creativity and Learning Design by Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Developing Contexts", 2018)

[technical training:] "covers the acquisition of knowledge, skills and competencies leading to overall individual or company performance in the use and application of technology." (BCS Learning & Development Limited, "CEdMA Europe", 2019)

"Learning involves any process that in living organisms leads to permanent capacity change. Learning develops knowledge, abilities, understandings, emotions, attitudes, and sociality, which are important elements of the conditions and raw material of society." (Chunfang Zhou & Zhiliang Zhu, "Fostering Problem-Based Learning (PBL) in Chinese Universities for a Creative Society", 2019)

"The capacity of an individual and an organization to explore new challenges and contexts. It is an opportunity to unlearn which is a dynamic way of learning. It is through unlearning that people shape their brain, to readjust and continue learning. It is essential condition for transformation, creativity and innovation." (Ana Martins et al, "Unravelling Hurdles to Organizational Sustainability by Virtue of Sharing and Creating Knowledge", 2019)

"A shift of mind and what goes on inside learners as they undertake to gain or acquire new knowledge, understanding, skill, attitudes, values, and interests. The ‘what goes on’ could be described as perceiving - sensing and feeling concrete reality, thinking or reasoning abstractly; and internalizing or processing - making it a part of ourselves by actively jumping in and trying it, or reflecting on and watching what is happening; thus, the learner - anywhere along his/her life path, at any age - would have going on inside of him/her the perceiving and internalizing of new knowledges, understandings, skills, attitudes, values, and interests." (John A Henschke,"Leadership Ethics in Higher Education Administration: An Andragogical Perspective", 2020)

07 July 2014

Performance Management: Critical Thinking (Definitions)

"Critical thinking is a type of thinking pattern that requires people to be reflective, and pay attention to decision-making which guides their beliefs and actions. Critical thinking allows people to deduct with more logic, to process sophisticated information and look at various sides of an issue so they can produce more solid conclusions." (Joan Baron & Robert Sternberg, "Book Reviews and Notes : Teaching Thinking Skills: Theory and Practice", 1987)

"The evaluation of ideas, sources, or solutions that are proposed as potential resources or solutions to unusual problems or to product design." (Ruth C Clark, "Building Expertise: Cognitive Methods for Training and Performance Improvement", 2008)

"Critical thinking is essentially a questioning, challenging approach to knowledge and perceived wisdom. It involves ideas and information from an objective position and then questioning this information in the light of our own values, attitudes and personal philosophy." Brenda Judge et al, "Critical Thinking Skills for Education Students", 2009)

"In academic contexts, this phrase usually refers to complex intellectual reasoning that questions assumptions and seeks to assess evidence and examine claims made by others. More simply, it can also refer to logical thinking based on facts and evidence." (Agnes Kukulska-Hulme, "Group Leadership in Online Collaborative Learning", 2009)

"Evaluation of products and ideas, such as critiquing an e-learning course or preparing an argument for a position." (Ruth C Clark & Richard E Mayer, "e-Learning and the Science of Instruction", 2011)

"Purposeful, self-regulatory judgment which results in interpretation, analysis, evaluation, and inference, as well as explanation of the evidential, conceptual, methodological, criteriological, or contextual considerations upon which that judgment is based" (Peter A Facione, "Critical Thinking: What It is and Why It Counts", 2011)

"A process in which one applies observation, analysis, inference, context, reflective thinking, and the like, in order to reach judgments. Such judgments should be open to alternative perspectives that may not normally be otherwise considered." (Project Management Institute, "Navigating Complexity: A Practice Guide", 2014)

"The ability to use your personal experience, logical thought processes, and creativity to analyze and evaluate situations. Further, critical thinking allows you to use the information gathered to reach a conclusion or answer." (Darril Gibson, "Effective Help Desk Specialist Skills", 2014)

"Thinking that is characterized by careful evaluation and judgment; this involves thinking about one’s thinking (metacognition). Critical thinking may involve examining contradictory lines of reasoning and/or using different lines of reasoning to cross-examine alternatives." (Ken Sylvester, "Negotiating in the Leadership Zone", 2015)

"Evaluation of products and ideas such as critiquing an e-learning course or preparing an argument for a position." (Ruth C Clark & Richard E Mayer, "e-Learning and the Science of Instruction", 2016)

"The capacity of an individual to effectively engage in a process of making decisions or solving problems by analyzing and evaluating evidence, arguments, claims, beliefs, and alternative points of view; synthesizing and making connections between information and arguments; interpreting information; and making inferences using reasoning appropriate to the situation." (Yigal Rosen & Maryam Mosharraf, "Evidence-Centered Concept Map in Computer-Based Assessment of Critical Thinking", 2016) 

"A set of skills that allows individuals to discriminate between essential and non-essential information and establish relationships between seemingly unconnected phenomena or ideas in the process of knowledge construction, all of which leads to deep understanding and learning." (Leonor M Martínez-Serrano, "The Pedagogical Potential of Design Thinking for CLIL Teaching: Creativity, Critical Thinking, and Deep Learning", 2020)

Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...