29 January 2016

Strategic Management: Risk (Definitions)

"The probability of uncertain events occurring, causing positive or negative effects on the objectives of an endeavor." (Margaret Y Chu, "Blissful Data ", 2004)

"An adverse impact on the developer’s business organization due to the occurrence of a product or project risk. The business risk can arise directly from contract terms and conditions (e.g., warranties or consequential damages) or indirectly from loss of future business or reputation. Buyers use terms and conditions to protect their organizations in the event that the developer fails to deliver acceptable products and services on time. Thus, terms and conditions place the developer at risk." (Richard D Stutzke, "Estimating Software-Intensive Systems: Projects, Products, and Processes", 2005)

"Potential loss that can be estimated by an analysis of threat and vulnerability; the casualty contemplated in a contract of insurance. Pure risk occurs from cost without benefit, such as from crime or natural disaster. Dynamic risk reflects calculated exposure that an enterprise may take that can lead to advancement or loss." (Robert McCrie, "Security Operations Management" 2nd Ed., 2006)

"A risk is an undesired event or potential problem which may occur with a certain probability sometime in the future. Risk occurrence is associated with damage; i.e., it has a negative effect on project goals. It may cause cost increases, schedule shifts, quality problems, or other damages." (Lars Dittmann et al, "Automotive SPICE in Practice", 2008)

"The consideration of a situation that might arise that would tend to prevent a strategy or objective from being successfully achieved." (Steven Haines, "The Product Manager's Desk Reference", 2008)

"Possibility of suffering losses on an investment; the sources of risk include inflation, default, politics, etc." (Stefano Caselli, "Private Equity and Venture Capital in Europe", 2009)

"A predictable or unpredictable event that has an uncertain outcome." (Annetta Cortez & Bob Yehling, "The Complete Idiot's Guide® To Risk Management", 2010)

"In general, risk is the probability that a threat agent will be able to exploit a defined vulnerability that would adversely impact the business." (Alex Berson & Lawrence Dubov, "Master Data Management and Data Governance", 2010)

"The possibility of incurring a liability or exposure to asset losses." (Sue Johnson & Gwen Moran, "The Complete Idiot's Guide To Business Plans", 2010)

"Refers to the possibility of occurrence of an event, whether uncertain or of undetermined term, which is not entirely under the control of the people involved and is contrary to their expectations or interest. Risk can be voluntary, when a person acts despite being aware of that possibility." (Humbert Lesca & Nicolas Lesca, "Weak Signals for Strategic Intelligence: Anticipation Tool for Managers", 2011)

"The possibility that an event could occur and interfere with an organization's ability to meet strategic goals or operating plans. Varies across organizations, industries, geographic regions, and time periods." (Leslie G Eldenburg & Susan K Wolcott, "Cost Management 2nd Ed", 2011)

"Risk is the possibility that something unpleasant or unwelcome will happen (NOAD). Risk to data is the possibility that something will negatively affect its quality and make it less fit for use." (Laura Sebastian-Coleman, "Measuring Data Quality for Ongoing Improvement ", 2012)

"The degree of uncertainty of realizing expected future returns of the business resulting from factors other than financial leverage." (Mark L Zyla, "Fair Value Measurement", 2012)

"In the context of business decisions, the cost of a particular outcome. When a set of outcomes are possible, this cost is often weighted by the probability, if known, of that particular outcome occurring. Not to be confused with uncertainty, a term often used incorrectly to communicate the level of risk." (Kenneth A Shaw, "Integrated Management of Processes and Information", 2013)

"Probability, usually of an unwanted event." (Geoff Cumming, "Understanding The New Statistics", 2013)

"The consequences of a realized threat." (Mark Rhodes-Ousley, "Information Security: The Complete Reference, Second Edition, 2nd Ed.", 2013)

"A factor that could result in future negative consequences; usually expressed as impact and likelihood." (Tilo Linz et al, "Software Testing Foundations, 4th Ed", 2014)

"A quantitative measure of the potential damage caused by a specified threat." (Manish Agrawal, "Information Security and IT Risk Management", 2014)

"The effect of uncertainty on objectives" (David Sutton, "Information Risk Management: A practitioner’s guide", 2014)

"The likelihood that a threat will exploit a vulnerability resulting in a loss. Organizations use risk mitigation techniques to reduce risk." (Darril Gibson, "Effective Help Desk Specialist Skills", 2014)

"In investment terms, risk is the uncertainty associated with an investment or asset. A high-risk investment, for example, may yield a high return; but if unsuccessful, it could cause the investor to lose everything. Operational risk is the risk of failure due to shortcomings in procedures, people, or systems." (DK, "The Business Book", 2014)

"A factor that could result in future negative consequences; usually expressed as impact and likelihood." (Tilo Linz et al, "Software Testing Foundations" 4th Ed", 2014)

"Risk is the product of consequence or impact and likelihood or probability, and is not the same as a threat or hazard. In the context of information risk management, risk is usually taken to have negative connotations. In the wider context of risk, however, it can also bee seen in a positive light and referred to as ‘opportunity’." (David Sutton, "Information Risk Management: A practitioner’s guide", 2014)

"The possibility of an event occurring that will have an impact on the achievement of objectives. Risk is measured in terms of impact and likelihood." (Sally-Anne Pitt, "Internal Audit Quality", 2014)

"The likelihood that a threat will exploit a vulnerability resulting in a loss. Organizations use risk mitigation techniques to reduce risk." (Darril Gibson, "Effective Help Desk Specialist Skills", 2014)

"An uncertainty that might lead to a loss. Losses occur when a threat exploits vulnerability." (Weiss, "Auditing IT Infrastructures for Compliance, 2nd Ed", 2015)

"Business risk is the potential loss due to a weakening in the compet­itive position." (Christopher Donohue et al, "Foundations of Financial Risk" 2nd Ed, 2015)

"Defined as the possible failure to meet your desired and expected objectives due to future, uncertain events." (Thomas C Wilson, "Value and Capital Management", 2015)

"The possibility of suffering harm or loss; Usually, risk involves the statistical chance that an action would pose a threat, resulting in a failure of some kind." (Ken Sylvester, "Negotiating in the Leadership Zone", 2015)

"The probability of a threat agent exploiting a vulnerability and the associated impact." (Adam Gordon, "Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP CBK" 4th Ed., 2015)

"The possible failure to meet your desired and expected objectives due to future, uncertain events." (Thomas C Wilson, "Value and Capital Management", 2015)

"The likelihood of a negative impact event occurring over a period of time, not to be confused with exposure. Example: there is a 30% risk of tornadoes occurring tonight." (Gregory Lampshire, "The Data and Analytics Playbook", 2016)

"The chance of a negative thing happening." (Pamela Schure & Brian Lawley, "Product Management For Dummies", 2017)

"A characterization of harmful events and their associated probabilities with respect to a given system or mission." (O Sami Saydjari, "Engineering Trustworthy Systems: Get Cybersecurity Design Right the First Time", 2018)

"A measure of the extent to which an entity is threatened by a potential circumstance or event, and typically a function of the adverse impacts that would arise if the circumstance or event occurs and the likelihood of occurrence." (William Stallings, "Effective Cybersecurity: A Guide to Using Best Practices and Standards", 2018)

"A factor that could result in future negative consequences; usually expressed as impact and likelihood." (ISTQB)

"A possible event that could cause harm or loss, or affect the ability to achieve objectives" (ITIL)

"The effect of uncertainty on objectives." (ISO Guide 73:2009)

"The effect of uncertainty on objectives, whether positive or negative." (ISO 31000) 

27 January 2016

Strategic Management: Methodology (Definitions)

"A process for the production of software using a collection of predefined techniques and notational conventions." (Atul Apte, "Java Connector Architecture: Building Custom Connectors and Adapters", 2002)

"A disciplined set of processes/procedures whose intent is to increase the success factor of analysis, design, implementation, and maintenance of a business solution." (Sharon Allen & Evan Terry, "Beginning Relational Data Modeling" 2nd Ed., 2005)

"A body of rules followed in a science of discipline." (Jennifer George-Palilonis, "A Practical Guide to Graphics Reporting", 2006)

"A defined, repeatable approach to address a particular type of problem. A methodology typically centers on a defined process but may also include definition of content. May be used interchangeably with the term method." (David Lyle & John G Schmidt, "Lean Integration", 2010)

"A logical sequence of tasks and activities that have deliverables as an end result. Implementation projects typically follow a predefined methodology." (Janice M Roehl-Anderson, "IT Best Practices for Financial Managers", 2010)

"A mature set of processes applied to various stages of an application’s life cycle to help reduce the likelihood of the presence or exploitation of security vulnerabilities." (Mark S Merkow & Lakshmikanth Raghavan, "Secure and Resilient Software Development", 2010)

"A system of practices, techniques, procedures, and rules used by those who work in a discipline." (Cynthia Stackpole, "PMP® Certification All-in-One For Dummies", 2011)

"A system of practices, techniques, procedures, and rules used by those who work in portfolios, programs, and projects. Project management methodology is a subset of OPM methodology." (PMI, "Implementing Organizational Project Management: A Practice Guide", 2014)

"A collection of specific procedures for creating a software system to meet a user’s needs" (Nell Dale et al, "Object-Oriented Data Structures Using Java 4th Ed.", 2016)

25 January 2016

Strategic Management: Mission (Definitions)

"A written summary describing why an organization exists." (Timothy J  Kloppenborg et al, "Project Leadership", 2003)

"A brief declaration of why the organization, group, or department exists. It provides the foundation on which the entity will build its products and services and identifies to whom it will offer them." (Teri Lund & Susan Barksdale, "10 Steps to Successful Strategic Planning", 2006)

"A stated purpose, intent, or goal. In the Harmony/ESW process, several work activities have specific missions, including diagram creation and the microcycle." (Bruce P Douglass, "Real-Time Agility: The Harmony/ESW Method for Real-Time and Embedded Systems Development", 2009)

"A statement that describes an organization's purpose or reason for existence." (Bettina M Davis & Wendy L Combsand, "Demystifying Technical Training: Partnership, Strategy, and Execution", 2009)

"A written statement that describes the business’s purpose and provides a sense of direction for the business. It helps management to develop complementary strategies." (Gina Abudi & Brandon Toropov, "The Complete Idiot's Guide to Best Practices for Small Business", 2011)

"Defines why an organization exists." (Linda Volonino & Efraim Turban, "Information Technology for Management" 8th Ed", 2011)

"High-level declaration of the organization's purpose. (6, 622, 666)" (Leslie G Eldenburg & Susan K Wolcott, "Cost Management" 2nd Ed., 2011)

"Explains the fundamental purpose of the company or organization." (Bill Holtsnider & Brian D Jaffe, "IT Manager's Handbook" 3rd Ed., 2012)

"A statement that focuses on the present and identifies what an organization hopes to achieve and/or how it hopes to achieve it. In contrast, a vision statement focuses on the future." (Darril Gibson, "Effective Help Desk Specialist Skills", 2014)

"Short (preferably one or two sentences long) expression of an organization's services, its target market, and its competitive advantages." (Manish Agrawal, "Information Security and IT Risk Management", 2014)

"A brief description of a company’s fundamental purpose that articulates the company’s purpose both for those in the organization and for the public." (Jeffrey Magee, "The Managerial Leadership Bible", 2015)

"A statement of purpose for an organization." (Andrew Pham et al, "From Business Strategy to Information Technology Roadmap", 2016)

"A description of an organization or function’s business, its objectives, and its approach to reach those objectives." (Jonathan Ferrar et al, "The Power of People", 2017)

"An expression of the types of behaviour that an organisation sees as key to achieving its strategy, goals or vision. Generally expressed as a statement." (Duncan Angwin & Stephen Cummings, "The Strategy Pathfinder" 3rd Ed., 2017)

"An organization’s top-level requirements that must be satisfied and the properties with which they must be satisfied, including trustworthiness." (O Sami Saydjari, "Engineering Trustworthy Systems: Get Cybersecurity Design Right the First Time", 2018)

"The stated reason for the existence of the organization. It is usually prepared by the CEO and key members of the executive team and succinctly states what they will achieve or accomplish. It typically is changed only when the organization decides to pursue a completely new market." (H James Harrington & William S Ruggles, "Project Management for Performance Improvement Teams", 2018)

"What an organization does, what its perceived mission or missions are, and what business processes are involved in fulfilling the mission(s)." (William Stallings, "Effective Cybersecurity: A Guide to Using Best Practices and Standards", 2018)

"Elements of organizations describing mission areas, common/shared business services, and organization-wide services. Mission/business segments can be identified with one or more information systems which collectively support a mission/business process." (CNSSI 4009-2015)

Strategic Management: Assumption (Definitions)

"When used in a Business Case, forecast, or other planning document, an assumption is a statement that relates to a potential future state or future situation." (Steven Haines, "The Product Manager's Desk Reference", 2008)

"An influencer type (a kind of 'internal influencer') that is an assertion taken for granted or without proof." (David C Hay, "Data Model Patterns: A Metadata Map", 2010)

"Hypothesis, belief, or conjecture made when something is not known with certainty. In cost accounting, assumptions exist for the various quantitative analysis techniques (e.g., CVP or regression analysis) and general quantitative decision rules (e.g., for product emphasis decisions). People also make assumptions to create cost accounting information (e.g., linear cost function). Poor quality assumptions lead to poor quality information and decisions. Failure to objectively analyze assumptions can lead to biased decisions." (Leslie G Eldenburg & Susan K Wolcott, "Cost Management" 2nd Ed., 2011)

"Assumptions are factors that, for planning purposes, are considered to be true, real, or certain without proof or demonstration." (Cynthia Stackpole, "PMP Certification All-in-One For Dummies", 2011)

"A condition that will affect the project, although the specifics of the condition are not yet known. For the purposes of planning, the specifics are assumed and called out as an assumption." (Bonnie Biafore & Teresa Stover, "Your Project Management Coach: Best Practices for Managing Projects in the Real World", 2012)

"Hypotheses regarding the conditions necessary for the realization of strategies over which the organization has no control. Assumptions represent the risks that you may not achieve desired outcomes. Any change to an assumption during the execution cycle should force a revision." (Paul C Dinsmore et al, "Enterprise Project Governance", 2012)

"Something that is taken for granted to be true." (Joan C Dessinger, "Fundamentals of Performance Improvement" 3rd Ed., 2012)

"A factor in the planning process that is considered to be true, real, or certain, without proof or demonstration." (For Dummies, "PMP Certification All-in-One For Dummies" 2nd Ed., 2013)

"Something presumed to be true. Assumptions are the basis of all statistical analysis. (It is important that the analyst choose methods based only on assumptions that are reasonable for the application.)" (Meta S Brown, "Data Mining For Dummies", 2014)

"An assumption is something that is taken for granted or unquestionably accepted as true." (Ken Sylvester, "Negotiating in the Leadership Zone", 2015)

"Unproven business supposition used to make rapid progress toward a conclusion." (Pamela Schure & Brian Lawley, "Product Management For Dummies", 2017)

24 January 2016

Strategic Management: Capability (Definitions)

"Within the context of this book, a capability refers to the knowledge, skills, experience, and overall abilities of cross-functional product team members. In this light, each team member must be able to understand, and be able to fulfill their commitments to the team. Therefore, a capability is the proven ability of an individual or group to perform a specific type of work." (Steven Haines, "The Product Manager's Desk Reference", 2008)

"A quality, ability, or feature that has the potential to be used or developed." (Bettina M Davis & Wendy L Combsand, "Demystifying Technical Training: Partnership, Strategy, and Execution", 2009)

"A thing that an organization, person, or system is able to do. Capabilities are typically very coarse-grained and may bring together a combination of people, processes, and technology." (David Lyle & John G Schmidt, "Lean Integration", 2010)

"A Capability is a specific competency that must exist in an organization to execute project management processes and deliver project management services and products. Capabilities are incremental steps leading up to one or more Best Practices." (Project Management Institute, "Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3)" 3rd Ed, 2013)

"A specific competency that an organization needs to have in order to implement and sustain OPM." (PMI, "Implementing Organizational Project Management: A Practice Guide", 2014)

"Designates the aptitude of an organization or a system to provide a given product or service; materialized by a series of elements (business, organizational, technical) that contribute to the realization of these products or services to the required level of quality." (Gilbert Raymond & Philippe Desfray, "Modeling Enterprise Architecture with TOGAF", 2014)

"Capability is a function of the affordances offered by an organizing system and the possible interactions they imply." (Robert J Glushko, "The Discipline of Organizing: Professional Edition" 4th Ed., 2016)

"A combination of working knowledge about a particular process or domain, and the capacity to apply that knowledge through action." (Gregory Lampshire, "The Data and Analytics Playbook", 2016)

"A measurable capacity to use resources that an organization needs to deliver to its strategy and achieve its agreed outcomes. It includes elements of people, process, information, and technology." (Kevin J Sweeney, "Re-Imagining Data Governance", 2018)

"More precisely referred to as organizational capability, is an organization’s capacity to perform a particular task or function." (Robert M Grant, "Contemporary Strategy Analysis" 10th Ed., 2018)

"A Capability is a higher-level solution behavior that typically spans multiple ARTs. Capabilities are sized and split into multiple features to facilitate their implementation in a single PI." (Dean Leffingwell, "SAFe 4.5 Reference Guide: Scaled Agile Framework for Lean Enterprises" 2nd Ed, 2018)

"The ability to carry out an activity" (ITIL)

Strategic Management: Strategic Planning (Just the Quotes)

"[Planning] means both to assess the future and make provision for it." (Henri Fayol, General and industrial management, 1919)

"To succeed, planning alone is insufficient. One must improvise as well." (Isaac Asimov, The Merchant Princes, 1944)

"Organization planning is the process of defining and grouping the activities of the enterprise so that they may be most logically assigned and effectively executed. It is concerned with the establishment of relationships among the units so as to further the objectives of the enterprise." (Ernest Dale, "Planning and developing the company organization structure", 1952)

"Planning is essentially the analysis and measurement of materials and processes in advance of the event and the perfection of records so that we may know exactly where we are at any given moment. In short it is attempting to steer each operation and department by chart and compass and chronometer - not by guess and by God." (Lyndall Urwick, "The Pattern of Management", 1956)

"Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling, performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources." (George R Terry, "Principles of Management", 1960)

"Planning is thinking beforehand how something is to be made or done, and mixing imagination with the product - which in a broad sense makes all of us planners." (Paul Williams, "The Influence of Planning on Man's Destiny", [speech] 1962) 

"[...] long-range plans are most valuable when they are revised and adjusted and set anew at shorter periods. The five-year plan is reconstructed each year in turn for the following five years. The soundest basis for this change is accurate measurement of the results of the first year's experience with the plan against the target of the plan." (George S Odiorne, "Management by Objectives", 1965)

"Targets set by individual managers are relevant to the company's goals because the entire management group is involved in the total planning process." (Walter S Wilkstrom, "Managing by-and-with Objectives", 1968)

"Planning is the design of a desired future and of effective ways of bringing it about." (Russell L Ackoff, "A concept of corporate planning", 1969) 

"The leading attempt at a complete normative theory of planning and resource allocation is provided by the concept of 'strategy'." (Joseph L Bower, "Managing the resource allocation process", 1970)

"As in war, strategic success depends on tactical effectiveness, and no degree of planning can lessen management's tactical imperatives. The first responsibility of the executive, anyway, is to the here and now. If he makes a shambles of the present, there may be no future; and the real purpose of planning - the one whose neglect is common, but poisonous - is to safeguard and sustain the company in subsequent short-run periods." (Robert Heller, "The Naked Manager: Games Executives Play", 1972)

"Good results without good planning come from good luck, not good management." (David Jaquith, "The Time Trap", 1972)

"What goes wrong [in long-range planning] is that sensible anticipation gets converted into foolish numbers: and their validity always hinges on large loose assumptions." (Robert Heller, "The Naked Manager: Games Executives Play", 1972)

"Strategic planning is not the 'application of scientific methods to business decision' […] . It is the application of thought, analysis, imagination, and judgment. It is responsibility, rather than technique. […] Strategy planning is not forecasting. […] Strategic planning is necessary precisely because we cannot forecast. […] Strategic planning does nor deal with future decisions. It deals with the futurity of present decisions. […] Strategic planning is not an attempt to eliminate risk. It is not even an attempt to minimize risk." (Peter F Drucker, "Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices", 1973)

"A competent manager can usually explain necessary planning changes in terms of specific facts which have contributed to the change. The existing fear, or attitude of failure, which results from missed completion dates should be replaced by a more constructive fear of failing to keep a plan updated." (Philip F Gehring Jr. & Udo W Pooch, "Advances in Computer Programming Management", 1980)

"Managerial accounting calls attention to problems and the need for action. It also aids in planning and decision making. It is aimed more at control and less at valuation than financial accounting." (John A Reinecke & William F Schoell, "Introduction to Business", 1983)

"Managing in accordance with a strategic plan is a learned art. The longer you use the tool, the better you are able to manage with it." (R Henry Miglione, "An MBO Approach to Long-Range Planning", 1983)

"[...] strategic planning and crisis management are complimentary. They coexist comfortably because both deal with the management of change. Crisis management concentrates on those brief moments of instability that must be dealt with first in order to get on with the larger and less time-sensitive job of reaching strategic objectives." (Gerald C Meyers, "When It Hits the Fan", 1986)

"Good people can fix a lot of flaws in poor planning, but it's never the other way around." (Roland Shmitt, "Government Executive", 1987)

"In complex situations, we may rely too heavily on planning and forecasting and underestimate the importance of random factors in the environment. That reliance can also lead to delusions of control." (Hillel J Einhorn & Robin M. Hogarth, Harvard Business Review, 1987)

"Problems can be reduced by allowing employees to help plan changes rather than directing them to execute a plan made by others." (Eugene Raudsepp, MTS Digest, 1987)

"[Successful organizations] comprehend uncertainty. They set direction, not detailed strategy. They are the best strategists precisely because they are suspicious of forecasts and open to surprise. They think strategic planning is great as long as no one takes the plans too seriously." (Robert H Waterman, "The Renewal Factor", 1987)

"Unpredictability cannot be removed, or perhaps even substantially reduced, by excessive planning." (Tom Peters, "Thriving on Chaos", 1987)

"Financial planning models do not always ask the right questions [...] We think that financial planning models are necessary, but we also think they should carry the label: Let the user beware!" (Stephen A Ross & Randolph W. Westerfield, "Corporate Finance", 1988)

"The thinking that underpins strategic planning is a legacy of more stable times when the environment was changing sufficiently slowly for an effective corporate response to emerge from methodical organisational routines." (Max Boisot, "Information Space", 1995)

21 January 2016

Strategic Management: Management (Definitions)

"To manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, co-ordinate and to control." (Henri Fayol, 1916)

"Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organising, actuating and controlling; utilising in each both science and art, and followed in order to accomplish pre-determined objectives." (George R Terry, "Principles of Management", 1960)

"Management is defined here as the accomplishment of desired objectives by establishing an environment favorable to performance by people operating in organized groups." (Harold Koontz, "Principles of Management", 1968)

"Management can be defined as the attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling organizational resources." (Richard L Daft, "The Leadership Experience" 4th Ed., 2008)

"Either the process of supervision, control, and co-ordination of productive activity in industrial and other formal organizations, or the persons performing these functions." (Kathryn J Hayes, "Triple Helix Organisations, Communities of Practice and Time", 2011)

"Activities for controlling and leveraging the limited amount of available resources (material, financial and human) aimed at the best possible way of achieving system performance objectives." (Alexander Kolker, "Management Science for Healthcare Applications", Encyclopedia of Business Analytics and Optimization, 2014)

"The art of planning, organizing, leading, coordinating and controlling resources of the organization toward accomplishment of common goal." (Mladen Čudanov & Jovan Krivokapić, "Organizational and Management Aspects of Cloud Computing Application in Scientific Research", 2014)

"The planning, organizing, leading and controlling of different resources to achieve company goals." (Irem Tukel & Deniz Z Celikdemir, "Integrating Ethics into Management: Why Is It Important?", 2015)

"The process of administering, coordinating and controlling the activities of the organization in order to achieve defined objectives, irrespective of its nature, type, structure, and size." (Chiraz Touil & Souhaila Kammoun, "Intellectual Property Management by Innovative Firms: Evidence From Tunisia", Intellectual Property Rights and the Protection of Traditional Knowledge, 2020)

"The process of using financial resources, tools, materials and time factor in a coherent and effective manner in order to achieve certain objectives." (M Hanefi Calp, "The Role of Artificial Intelligence Within the Scope of Digital Transformation in Enterprises", 2020)

"The term management is used to refer to the set of actions, or procedures that allow the realization of any activity or desire. In other words, a management refers to all those procedures that are carried out in order to resolve a situation or materialize a project." (Mayra A V Londoño, Success Factors in the Pedagogical Management of the English Language Teaching Managers, 2020)

20 January 2016

Strategic Management: Asset (Definitions)

 "Item that appears on the balance sheet of a company that represents something owned by the company or something owed to the company by someone else. Bank loans are assets from the bank’s point of view because they are owed to the bank." (Ralph Kimball & Margy Ross, "The Data Warehouse Toolkit" 2nd Ed., 2002)

"On the Balance Sheet, an asset is something owned that has value, including cash, marketable securities, accounts receivable, plant and equipment, and inventory." (Steven Haines, "The Product Manager's Desk Reference", 2008)

"Items of value owned by a business, including real estate, equipment, cash, and other items that can be sold for cash. Some intangible items, such as a well-known logo or trade name, can also be considered assets." (Sue Johnson & Gwen Moran, "The Complete Idiot's Guide® To Business Plans", 2010)

"1.Generally, something that has value or produces benefit. 2.In accounting, something of value on a balance sheet." (DAMA International, "The DAMA Dictionary of Data Management", 2011)

"Resource with recognized value that is under control of an individual or organization." (Linda Volonino & Efraim Turban, "Information Technology for Management" 8th Ed., 2011)

"A resource: (a) controlled by an entity as a result of past events; and (b) from which future economic benefits are expected to flow to the entity." (Project Management Institute, "The Standard for Program Management" 3rd Ed..", 2013)

"Any item of value that should be protected. Can be physical or electronic, or even non-tangible (like reputation)." (Mark Rhodes-Ousley, "Information Security: The Complete Reference" 2nd Ed., 2013)

"Items of economic value created by a team through the application of competencies and tools. Within a business-analytics context they are normally intangible in nature and often include models, processes, and electronic documentation." (Evan Stubbs, "Delivering Business Analytics: Practical Guidelines for Best Practice", 2013)

"A resource or information that is to be protected." (Manish Agrawal, "Information Security and IT Risk Management", 2014)

"Any economic resource that is owned by a company that can be used to generate value for the business." (DK, "The Business Book", 2014)

"Property, plant, and equipment used to generate profit." (Paul H Barshop, "Capital Projects", 2016)

"Data contained in an information system; or a service provided by a system; or a system capability, such as processing power or communication bandwidth; or an item of system equipment (that is, a system component—hardware, firmware, software, or documentation); or a facility that houses system operations and equipment." (William Stallings, "Effective Cybersecurity: A Guide to Using Best Practices and Standards", 2018)

"Any item that has value to the organisation." (ISO/IEC 27000:2012)

16 January 2016

Strategic Management: Strategic Planning (Definition)

"[…] strategic planning […] is the continuous process of making present entrepreneurial (risk-taking) decisions systematically and with the greatest knowledge of their futurity; organizing systematically the efforts needed to carry out these decisions; and measuring the results of these decisions against the expectations through organized, systematic feedback." (Peter F Drucker, "Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices", 1973)

"The process of determining how a problem or opportunity may be responded to. Involves identifying problems or opportunities, analyzing relevant characteristics of the circumstances, organizing the formal response, deputizing a leader to head the response effort, and supervising the person(s) selected." (Robert McCrie, "Security Operations Management" 2nd Ed., 2006)

"Written record of a strategic plan, usually consisting of an overview, strategy charter, description of the current environment, research findings, tactics, roles and accountabilities, key performance indicators, and recommended next steps." (Teri Lund & Susan Barksdale, "10 Steps to Successful Strategic Planning", 2006)

"The implementation of an organization's objectives. Strategic planning decisions will have long-term impacts on the organization while operational decisions are day-to-day in nature." (Jae K Shim & Joel G Siegel, "Budgeting Basics and Beyond", 2008)

"The selection of short- and long-term objectives and the drawing up of tactical and strategic plans to achieve those objectives. After deciding on a set of strategies to be followed, the organization needs more specific plans, such as locations, methods of financing, and hours of operation. As these plans are made, they will be communicated throughout the organization. When implemented, the plans will serve to coordinate the efforts of all parts of the organization toward the company's objectives." (Jae K Shim & Joel G Siegel, "Budgeting Basics and Beyond", 2008)

"A deliberative, disciplined approach to producing fundamental decisions and actions that shape and guide what an organization (or other entity) is, what it does, and why it does it.” (John M Bryson, 2011)

"A long-range plan that serves as a business’s road map for the future. It includes the product lines and services, the number of employees, technology requirements, industry trends, competitor analysis, revenue and profitability goals, types of customers, and long-range marketing plans." (Gina Abudi & Brandon Toropov, "The Complete Idiot's Guide to Best Practices for Small Business", 2011)

"A series of processes in which an organization selects and arranges its businesses or services to keep the organization viable even when unexpected events distrupt one or more of its business's markets, products, or services." (Linda Volonino & Efraim Turban, "Information Technology for Management" 8th Ed., 2011)

"A high-level document that explains the organization's vision and mission, plus the approach that will be adopted to achieve this mission and vision, including the specific goals and objectives to be achieved during the period covered by the document." (Project Management Institute, "The Standard for Portfolio Management" 3rd Ed., 2012)

"The process by which an organization envisions its future and develops the necessary goals and procedures to achieve that vision." (Joan C Dessinger, "Fundamentals of Performance Improvement" 3rd Ed., 2012)

"A systematic process of envisioning a desired future and translating this vision into broadly defined goals or objectives and a sequence of steps to achieve them." (Robert F Smallwood, "Information Governance: Concepts, Strategies, and Best Practices", 2014)

"The process by which organizations identify a desired outcome, the resources required to support that outcome, and the plan to achieve the outcome. Typically, strategic planning is an important step in identifying the creation of new competitive advantages." (Evan Stubbs, "Big Data, Big Innovation", 2014)

"A process of selecting from alternative courses of action, matching that with the available resources, and combining these in a way that will most effectively achieve the objective; Intended action toward an organizational goal or objective." (Ken Sylvester, "Negotiating in the Leadership Zone", 2015)

"A formalised step-by-step set of procedures for coordinating the strategy process." (Duncan Angwin & Stephen Cummings, "The Strategy Pathfinder" 3rd Ed., 2017)

"A document used to communicate with the organization the organization’s goals, the actions needed to achieve those goals, and all the other critical elements developed during the planning exercise." (William Stallings, "Effective Cybersecurity: A Guide to Using Best Practices and Standards", 2018)

15 January 2016

Strategic Management: Vision (Definitions)

"A written summary describing why an organization exists." (Timothy J  Kloppenborg et al, "Project Leadership", 2003)

"A brief declaration of why the organization, group, or department exists. It provides the foundation on which the entity will build its products and services and identifies to whom it will offer them." (Teri Lund & Susan Barksdale, "10 Steps to Successful Strategic Planning", 2006)

"The envisioned end state or optimal future situation. A product leader envisions a product's position in the market at a point in the future. The product leader's vision provides essential guidance to a team as strategies are formulated." (Steven Haines, "The Product Manager's Desk Reference", 2008)

"A statement about an organization that presents an aspiring view of the future and asserts what the organization is best at or seeks to achieve." (Bettina M Davis & Wendy L Combsand, "Demystifying Technical Training: Partnership, Strategy, and Execution", 2009)

"A statement that describes an organization's purpose or reason for existence." (Bettina M Davis & Wendy L Combsand, "Demystifying Technical Training: Partnership, Strategy, and Execution", 2009)

"A description of a desired future state of the enterprise, without regard to how it is to be achieved." (David C Hay, "Data Model Patterns: A Metadata Map", 2010)

"An organization's picture of where it wants to be in the future." (Linda Volonino & Efraim Turban, "Information Technology for Management" 8th Ed, 2011)

"High-level declaration of the organization's purpose." (Leslie G Eldenburg & Susan K Wolcott, "Cost Management 2nd Ed", 2011)

"Defines why an organization exists." (Linda Volonino & Efraim Turban, "Information Technology for Management 8th Ed", 2011)

"Theoretical description of what the organization should become." (Leslie G Eldenburg & Susan K Wolcott, "Cost Management" 2nd Ed, 2011)

"a company document that takes a mission statement to the next level by outlining what the organization wants to be; it focuses on the future and serves as a source of inspiration for employees." (Bill Holtsnider & Brian D Jaffe, "IT Manager's Handbook" 3rd Ed, 2012)

"explains the fundamental purpose of the company or organization." (Bill Holtsnider & Brian D Jaffe, "IT Manager's Handbook, 3rd Ed", 2012)

"A statement that defines where an organization wants to be in the future." (Sally-Anne Pitt, "Internal Audit Quality", 2014)

"A statement that describes where an organization wants to be or what it wants to achieve at some point in the future. It is normally a single sentence and provides inspiration to employees to help the organization achieve it. In contrast, a mission statement focuses on the present." (Darril Gibson, "Effective Help Desk Specialist Skills", 2014)

"A brief description of a company’s fundamental purpose that articulates the company’s purpose both for those in the organization and for the public." (Jeffrey Magee, "The Managerial Leadership Bible", 2015)

"An aspirational description of the achievements an organization aims to accomplish in the mid-to-long term." (Andrew Pham et al, "From Business Strategy to Information Technology Roadmap", 2016)

"A description of an organization or function’s business, its objectives, and its approach to reach those objectives." (Jonathan Ferrar et al, "The Power of People: Learn How Successful Organizations Use Workforce Analytics To Improve Business Performance", 2017)

"A description of the desired future impact of your function on the organization." (Jonathan Ferrar et al, "The Power of People", 2017)

"The stated reason for the existence of the organization. It is usually prepared by the CEO and key members of the executive team and succinctly states what they will achieve or accomplish. It typically is changed only when the organization decides to pursue a completely new market." (H James Harrington & William S Ruggles, "Project Management for Performance Improvement Teams", 2018)

"The Vision is a description of the future state of the Solution under development. It reflects Customer and stakeholder needs, as well as the Feature and Capabilities proposed to meet those needs." (Dean Leffingwell, "SAFe 4.5 Reference Guide: Scaled Agile Framework for Lean Enterprises" 2nd Ed, 2018)

 "A concise statement defining an organization’s long-term direction, the vision is a summary statement of what the organization ultimately intends to become five, 10 or even 15 years into the future. It is the organization’s long-term 'dream' , what it constantly strives to achieve. A powerful vision provides everyone in the organization with a shared mental framework that helps give shape to its abstract future." (Intrafocus) 


14 January 2016

Strategic Management: Tactics (definitions)

"Actions that will lead to specific desired results or outcomes." (Teri Lund & Susan Barksdale, "10 Steps to Successful Strategic Planning", 2006)

"A course of action that represents one or more details of a strategy. A strategy, then, may be implemented by one or more tactics. In general, strategies address goals, and tactics address objectives." (David C Hay, "Data Model Patterns: A Metadata Map", 2010)

"Tools for how to achieve one’s objective." (Ken Sylvester, "Negotiating in the Leadership Zone", 2015)


13 January 2016

Strategic Management: Principles (Definitions)

[Administrative principles:] "A subfield of the classical management perspective that focuses on the total organization rather than the individual worker, delineating the management functions of planning, controlling, organizing, commanding, and coordinating." (Timothy J  Kloppenborg et al, "Project Leadership", 2003)

"A general, instructive, concise, and memorable statement that suggests a way of reasoning or acting that is effective and proven to reach a certain goal within an organizational context." (Martin J Eppler, "Managing Information Quality" 2nd Ed., 2006)

"Defines the underlying general rules that an organization uses to utilize and deploy all business and IT resources and assets across the enterprise." (Tilak Mitra et al, "SOA Governance", 2008)

"A basic statement of truth, especially with respect to a goal or intent. " (Bruce P Douglass, "Real-Time Agility", 2009)

"Formally, a fundamental law, doctrine, premise, or assumption. Informally, a rule or code of conduct." (DAMA International, "The DAMA Dictionary of Data Management", 2011)

"Organizing principles are directives for the design or arrangement of a collection of resources that are ideally expressed in a way that does not assume any particular implementation or realization." (Robert J Glushko, "The Discipline of Organizing: Professional Edition" 4th Ed, 2016)

Strategic Management: Objectives (Definitions)

"A statement of an attainable, time-targeted, and measurable desired result the enterprise seeks to meet to achieve its goals." (David C Hay, "Data Model Patterns: A Metadata Map", 2010)

"Building blocks of strategy. They set out what the business is trying to achieve. They are action-oriented statements that define the continuous improvement activities that must be done to be successful." (Linda Volonino & Efraim Turban, "Information Technology for Management" 8th Ed. , 2011)

"Something toward which work is to be directed, a strategic position to be attained, or a purpose to be achieved, a result to be obtained, a product to be produced, or a service to be performed." (Cynthia Stackpole, "PMP® Certification All-in-One For Dummies®", 2011)

"Specific goals that managers choose to measure and monitor, to motivate employees to carry out organizational strategies." (Leslie G Eldenburg & Susan K Wolcott, "Cost Management 2nd Ed", 2011)

"The definition of an organization's intended achievements in terms of business results interpreted from various perspectives financial, customer, infrastructure, products and services, or by cultural outcomes that are measurable." (Project Management Institute, "The Standard for Portfolio Management" 3rd Ed., 2012)

"The goal broken down into manageable tasks so that you can carry them out and measure for success. It is more precise and capable of both attainment and measurement." (Paul C Dinsmore et al, "Enterprise Project Governance", 2012)

"These set out the measures of success that you will apply to achieving your goal - typically in terms of time, cost (or budget or resources) and quality standards." (Mike Clayton, "Brilliant Project Leader", 2012)

"Something toward which work is to be directed, a strategic position to be attained, a purpose to be achieved, a result to be obtained, a product to be produced, or a service to be performed." (For Dummies, "PMP Certification All-in-One For Dummies" 2nd Ed., 2013)

"A result to be achieved" (David Sutton, "Information Risk Management: A practitioner’s guide", 2014)

"Step in time used to demonstrate the progress made toward reaching a goal (e.g., “increase capability usage by 30% by the end of 2014 in order to support the expected increase in market share")." (Gilbert Raymond & Philippe Desfray, "Modeling Enterprise Architecture with TOGAF", 2014)

"A set of goals. Used as part of an assessment to determine what needs to be accomplished to validate a control." (Weiss, "Auditing IT Infrastructures for Compliance" 2nd Ed., 2015)

"Something toward which work is to be directed, a strategic position to be attained, a purpose to be achieved, a result to be obtained, a product to be produced, or a service to be performed." (Project Management Institute, "A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide)", 2017)

"A concise statement describing specific, critical, actionable and measurable things an organization must do in order to effectively execute its strategy and achieve its mission and vision. Objectives often begin with action verbs such as increase, reduce, improve, achieve, etc. Whereas the vision and mission statements provide an organizing and mobilizing 'rallying cry', objectives translate the vision and mission into measurable and actionable operational terms." (Intrafocus) 

12 January 2016

Strategic Management: Goals (Definitions)

"[long-term goals] Plans that managers intend to achieve over a long time period (longer than one year); used to monitor long-term organizational performance." (Leslie G Eldenburg & Susan K Wolcott, "Cost Management" 2nd Ed., 2011)

"Targets established by management for variables that are critical to success. Progress is monitored and reported through diagnostic control systems. Also see strategic objectives." (Leslie G Eldenburg & Susan K Wolcott, "Cost Management 2nd Ed", 2011)

"A statement that qualifies desired results. It is the end toward which efforts are directed. It is normally general and timeless, yet attainable." (Paul C Dinsmore et al, "Enterprise Project Governance", 2012)

"States the over arching purpose of the project - what you seek to achieve. Also known as 'aim'." (Mike Clayton, "Brilliant Project Leader", 2012)

"The definition of an organization's intended achievements in terms of business results may be interpreted from various perspectives - financial, customer, infrastructure, products and services, or by cultural outcomes that are measurable." (Project Management Institute, "Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3)" 3rd Ed. , 2013)

"High-level declaration of the intent or direction of an organization; translated into objectives." (Gilbert Raymond & Philippe Desfray, "Modeling Enterprise Architecture with TOGAF", 2014)

"A desired state or result of an undertaken. Goals should be measurable and defined in time so that the progress can be monitored." (IQBBA)

"An observable and measurable end result having one or more objectives to be achieved within a more or less fixed time-frame." (Intrafocus) 


06 January 2016

Strategic Management: Governance (Definitions)

"Addresses the need for a mechanism to ensure compliance with the laws, policies, standards, and procedures under which an organization operates."  (Dominic Cadbury, "UK, Commission Report: Corporate Governance", 1992)

"Organizational chains of responsibility, authority, and communication for executing measurement and control mechanisms to effectively drive the organization and enable people to perform roles their respective roles and responsibilities." (Murray Cantor, "Estimation Variance and Governance", 2006) 

"In general, a term that describes the task of 'making sure that people do what’s right'." (Nicolai M Josuttis, "SOA in Practice", 2007)

"Addresses the need for a mechanism to ensure compliance with the laws, policies, standards, and procedures under which an organization operates." (Tilak Mitra et al, "SOA Governance", 2008)

"System by which organizations [or systems] are directed and controlled." (ISO/IEC, ISO/IEC 38500:2008 "Corporate governance of information technology" , 2008)

"The way we make and act on decisions about managing a shared resource for the common good. Resources can be people, processes, and technology." (Allen Dreibelbis et al, "Enterprise Master Data Management", 2008)

"(1) Planning, influencing, and conducting the decision-making affairs of an enterprise. (2) The processes and systems that ensure proper accountability for the conduct of an enterprise’s business." (David G Hill, "Data Protection: Governance, Risk Management, and Compliance", 2009)

"A kind of direction from a directive describing the boundaries and direction for a business process." (David C Hay, "Data Model Patterns: A Metadata Map", 2010)

"The 'checks-and-balances' method that keeps risks in check; a review of measurements, mitigation methods, and risk monitoring results over a period of time." (Annetta Cortez & Bob Yehling, "The Complete Idiot's Guide To Risk Management", 2010)

"The discipline of tracking, managing, and steering an IS/IT landscape. Architectural governance is concerned with change processes (design governance). Operational governance looks at the operational performance of systems against contracted performance levels, the definition of operational performance levels, and the implementation of systems that ensure the effective operation of systems." (David Lyle & John G Schmidt, "Lean Integration", 2010)

"[...] simultaneously refers to the art of governing, of running an enterprise and of defining its strategy. This term denotes the process of practicing this art, as well as the means implemented for governing: decision rules, suitable information, supervision and checks, relationships nurtured between leaders, administrators, employees and shareholders, where applicable. By extension, governance can be expanded to cover a wider circle, including for example suppliers." (Humbert Lesca & Nicolas Lesca, "Weak Signals for Strategic Intelligence: Anticipation Tool for Managers", 2011)

"Consistent management, cohesive policies, guidance, processes, and decision rights for a given area of responsibility. For example, corporate governance can involve policies on privacy, internal investment, and the use of data." (Craig S Mullins, "Database Administration", 2012)

"The process of managing change. Involves steering or directing the content, the people who create it, and the systems that support it through both the day-to-day and long-term content lifecycles." (Charles Cooper & Ann Rockley, "Managing Enterprise Content: A Unified Content Strategy" 2nd Ed., 2012)

"The ability to ensure that corporate or governmental rules and regulations are conformed with. Governance is combined with compliance and security issues across computing environments." (Marcia Kaufman et al, "Big Data For Dummies", 2013)

"The process of establishing and enforcing strategic goals and objectives, organizational policies, and performance parameters." (PMI, "Software Extension to the PMBOK® Guide" 5th Ed., 2013)

"Governance is the oversight of process, such as strategy or content life cycle, including policy and management." (Elaine Biech, "ASTD Handbook" 2nd Ed., 2014)

"Set of measurement, management, and steering processes for a business domain or IS that provides the expected level of result." (Gilbert Raymond & Philippe Desfray, "Modeling Enterprise Architecture with TOGAF", 2014)

"The combination of processes and structures implemented by the board to inform, direct, manage, and monitor the activities of the organization toward the achievement of its objectives." (Sally-Anne Pitt, "Internal Audit Quality", 2014)

"Set of measurement, management, and steering processes for a business domain or IS that provides the expected level of result." (Gilbert Raymond & Philippe Desfray, "Modeling Enterprise Architecture with TOGAF", 2014)

"The framework for directing and enabling an organization through its established policies, practices, and other relevant documentation." (Project Management Institute, "Navigating Complexity: A Practice Guide", 2014)

"The process of ensuring compliance with corporate or governmental rules, regulations, and policies. Governance is often associated with risk management and security activities across computing environments." (Judith S Hurwitz et al, "Cognitive Computing and Big Data Analytics", 2015)

"The process through which an organization’s processes and assets are directed and controlled." (Weiss, "Auditing IT Infrastructures for Compliance" 2nd Ed., 2015)

"A broad term referring to the establishment of policies and guidelines, along with continuous monitoring of their proper implementation, by the members of the governing body of an organization." (Jonathan Ferrar et al, "The Power of People", 2017)

"Consists of the systems by which the board ensures that its policies are being effectively implemented. Usually this includes systems to monitor and record what is happening, to identify instances in which policy is not being followed, and to take corrective action in those cases." (Marci S Thomas & Kim Strom-Gottfried, "Best of Boards" 2nd Ed., 2018)

"Generally refers to the management of the business organization itself. Includes the company’s organizing documents, the records of its owners and managers, and the steps required to maintain the company in good standing with the state where it is organized." (Alex D Bennett, "A Freelancer’s Guide to Legal Entities", 2018)

"The mechanisms by which decisions about the [semantic] model and its development, application and evolution are made and executed." (Panos Alexopoulos, "Semantic Modeling for Data", 2020)

"Ensures that stakeholder needs, conditions and options are evaluated to determine balanced, agreed on enterprise objectives to be achieved; setting direction through prioritization and decision making; and monitoring performance and compliance against agreed-on direction and objectives." (ISACA)

05 January 2016

Strategic Management: Roadmap (Definitions)

"An abstracted plan for business or technology change, typically operating across multiple disciplines over multiple years." (David Lyle & John G Schmidt, "Lean Integration", 2010)

"Techniques that capture market trends, product launches, technology development, and competence building over time in a multilayer, consistent framework." (Gina C O'Connor & V K Narayanan, "Encyclopedia of Technology and Innovation Management", 2010)

"Defines the actions required to move from current to future (target) state. Similar to a high-level project plan." (DAMA International, "The DAMA Dictionary of Data Management", 2011)

[portfolio roadmap:] "A document that provides the high-level strategic direction and portfolio information in a chronological fashion for portfolio management and ensures dependencies within the portfolio are established and evaluated." (Project Management Institute, "The Standard for Portfolio Management" 3rd Ed., 2012)

"Forward-looking plans intended to be taken by the security program over the foreseeable future." (Mark Rhodes-Ousley, "Information Security: The Complete Reference" 2nd Ed., 2013)

"Within the context of business analytics, a defined set of staged initiatives that deliver tactical returns while moving the team toward strategic outcomes." (Evan Stubbs, "Delivering Business Analytics: Practical Guidelines for Best Practice", 2013)

"High-level action plan for change that will involve several facets of the enterprise (business, organization, technical)." (Gilbert Raymond & Philippe Desfray, "Modeling Enterprise Architecture with TOGAF", 2014)

"An action plan that matches the organization's business goals with specific technology solutions in order to help meet those goals." (David K Pham, "From Business Strategy to Information Technology Roadmap", 2016)

"The Roadmap is a schedule of events and Milestones that communicate planned Solution deliverables over a timeline. It includes commitments for the planned, upcoming Program Increment (PI) and offers visibility into the deliverables forecasted for the next few PIs." (Dean Leffingwell, "SAFe 4.5 Reference Guide: Scaled Agile Framework for Lean Enterprises" 2nd Ed., 2018)

"A product roadmap is a visual summary of a product’s direction to facilitate communication with customers, prospects, partners, and internal stakeholders." (Pendo) [source]

"A Roadmap is a plan to progress toward a set of defined goals. Depending on the purpose of the Roadmap, it may be either high-level or detailed. In terms of Enterprise Architecture, roadmaps are usually developed as abstracted plans for business or technology changes, typically operating across multiple disciplines over multiple years." (Orbus Software)

"A roadmap is a strategic plan that defines a goal or desired outcome and includes the major steps or milestones needed to reach it." (ProductPlan) [source]

03 January 2016

Strategic Management: Business Strategy (Definitions)

"Business strategy is the determination of how a company will compete in a given business, and position itself among its competitors." (Kenneth R Andrews, "The Concept of Corporate Strategy", 1980)

"A business strategy identifies how a division or strategic business unit will compete in its product or service domain." (John R Schermerhorn Jr, "Management" 12th Ed., 2012)

"Business strategy is essentially the art and science of formulating. plans to align resources, overcome challenges, and achieve stated objectives." (Carl F Lehman, "Strategy and Business Process Management", 2012)

"A business strategy is a set of guiding principles that, when communicated and adopted in the organization, generates a desired pattern of decision making. A strategy is therefore about how people throughout the organization should make decisions and allocate resources in order accomplish key objectives." (Michael D Watkins,"Demystifying Strategy: The What, Who, How, and Why", Harvard Business Review, 2007) [source]



02 January 2016

Strategic Management: Risk Management (Definitions)

"An organized, analytic process to identify what might cause harm or loss (identify risks); to assess and quantify the identified risks; and to develop and, if needed, implement an appropriate approach to prevent or handle causes of risk that could result in significant harm or loss." (Sandy Shrum et al, "CMMI: Guidelines for Process Integration and Product Improvement", 2003)

"The organized, analytic process to identify future events (risks) that might cause harm or loss, assess and quantify the identified risks, and decide if, how, and when to prevent or reduce the risk. Also includes the implementation of mitigation actions at the appropriate times." (Richard D Stutzke, "Estimating Software-Intensive Systems: Projects, Products, and Processes", 2005)

"Identifying a situation or problem that may put specific plans or outcomes in jeopardy, and then organizing actions to mitigate it." (Teri Lund & Susan Barksdale, "10 Steps to Successful Strategic Planning", 2006)

"The process of identifying hazards of property insured; the casualty contemplated in a specific contract of insurance; the degree of hazard; a specific contingency or peril. Generally not the same as security management, but may be related in concerns and activities. Work is done by a risk manager." (Robert McCrie, "Security Operations Management" 2nd Ed., 2006)

"Systematic application of procedures and practices to the tasks of identifying, analyzing, prioritizing, and controlling risk." (Tilo Linz et al, "Software Testing Practice: Test Management", 2007)

"Risk management is a continuous process to be performed throughout the entire life of a project, and an important part of project management activities. The objective of risk management is to identify and prevent risks, to reduce their probability of occurrence, or to mitigate the effects in case of risk occurrence." (Lars Dittmann et al, "Automotive SPICE in Practice", 2008)

"A structured process for managing risk." (David G Hill, "Data Protection: Governance, Risk Management, and Compliance", 2009)

"The process organizations employ to reduce different types of risks. A company manages risk to avoid losing money, protect against breaking government or regulatory body rules, or even assure that adverse weather does not interrupt the supply chain." (Tony Fisher, "The Data Asset", 2009)

"Systematic application of procedures and practices to the tasks of identifying, analyzing, prioritizing, and controlling risk." (IQBBA, "Standard glossary of terms used in Software Engineering", 2011)

"The process of identifying what can go wrong, determining how to respond to risks should they occur, monitoring a project for risks that do occur, and taking steps to respond to the events that do occur." (Bonnie Biafore, "Successful Project Management: Applying Best Practices and Real-World Techniques with Microsoft® Project", 2011)

"Risk management is using managerial resources to integrate risk identification, risk assessment, risk prioritization, development of risk-handling strategies, and mitigation of risk to acceptable levels (ASQ)." (Laura Sebastian-Coleman, "Measuring Data Quality for Ongoing Improvement ", 2012)

"The process of identifying negative and positive risks to a project, analyzing the likelihood and impact of those risks, planning responses to higher priority risks, and tracking risks." (Bonnie Biafore & Teresa Stover, "Your Project Management Coach: Best Practices for Managing Projects in the Real World", 2012)

"A policy of determining the greatest potential failure associated with a project." (James Robertson et al, "Complete Systems Analysis: The Workbook, the Textbook, the Answers", 2013)

"Controlling vulnerabilities, threats, likelihood, loss, or impact with the use of security measures. See also risk, threat, and vulnerability." (Mark Rhodes-Ousley, "Information Security: The Complete Reference, Second Edition" 2nd Ed., 2013)

"A process to identify, assess, manage, and control potential events or situations to provide reasonable assurance regarding the achievement of the organization's objectives." (Sally-Anne Pitt, "Internal Audit Quality", 2014)

"Managing the financial impacts of unusual events." (Manish Agrawal, "Information Security and IT Risk Management", 2014)

"Systematic application of policies, procedures, methods and practices to the tasks of identifying, analysing, evaluating, treating and monitoring risk." (Chartered Institute of Building, "Code of Practice for Project Management for Construction and Development, 5th Ed.", 2014)

"The coordinated activities to direct and control an organisation with regard to risk." (David Sutton, "Information Risk Management: A practitioner’s guide", 2014)

"The process of reducing risk to an acceptable level by implementing security controls. Organizations implement risk management programs to identify risks and methods to reduce it. The risk that remains after risk has been mitigated to an acceptable level is residual risk." (Darril Gibson, "Effective Help Desk Specialist Skills", 2014)

"Risk management is a structured approach to monitoring, meas­uring, and managing exposures to reduce the potential impact of an uncertain happening." (Christopher Donohue et al, "Foundations of Financial Risk: An Overview of Financial Risk and Risk-based Financial Regulation, 2nd Ed", 2015)

"Systematic application of procedures and practices to the tasks of identifying, analyzing, prioritizing, and controlling risk. " (ISTQB, "Standard Glossary", 2015)

"The practice of identifying, assessing, controlling, and mitigating risks. Techniques to manage risk include avoiding, transferring, mitigating, and accepting the risk." (Weiss, "Auditing IT Infrastructures for Compliance, 2nd Ed", 2015)

"The discipline and methods used to quantify, track, and reduce where possible various types of defined risk." (Gregory Lampshire, "The Data and Analytics Playbook", 2016)

"The process of identifying individual risks, understanding and analyzing them, and then managing them." (Paul H Barshop, "Capital Projects", 2016)

"Coordinated activities to direct and control an organization with regard to risk." (William Stallings, "Effective Cybersecurity: A Guide to Using Best Practices and Standards", 2018)

"Process of identifying and monitoring business risks in a manner that offers a risk/return relationship that is acceptable to an entity's operating philosophy." (Tom Klammer, "Statement of Cash Flows: Preparation, Presentation, and Use", 2018)

"Coordinated activities to direct and control an organisation with regard to risk." (ISO Guide 73:2009)

"Risk management is the identification, assessment and prioritisation of risks [...] followed by coordinated and economical application of resources to minimise, monitor and control the probability and/or impact of unfortunate events or to maximise the realisation of opportunities." (David Sutton, "Information Risk Management: A practitioner’s guide", 2014)

01 January 2016

Strategic Management: Strategy (Definitions)

"Strategy can be defined as the determination of the long-term goals and objectives of an enterprise, and the adoption of courses of action and the allocation of resources necessary for carrying out these goals." (Alfred D. Chandler Jr., "Strategy and Structure", 1962)

"Strategy is the pattern of objectives, purposes or goals and major policies and plans for achieving these goals, stated in such a way as to define what businesses the company is in or is to be in and the kind of company it is or is to be." (Edmund P Learned et al, "Business Policy: Text and Cases", 1965)

"Strategies are forward-looking plans that anticipate change and initiate actions to take advantage of opportunities that are integrated into the concept or mission of the company." (William A Newman & J. P Logan, "Strategy, Policy, and Central Management", 1971) 

"Strategy is the basic goals and objectives of the organization, the major programs of action chosen to reach these goals and objectives, and the major pattern of resource allocation used to relate the organization to its environment." (Dan E Schendel & K J Hatten, "Business Policy or Strategic Management: A View for an Emerging Discipline", 1972)

"Strategy is a unified, comprehensive, and integrative plan designed to assure that the basic objectives of the enterprise are achieved." (William F Glueck, "Business Policy, Strategy Formation, and Management Action", 1976) 

"Strategy is the forging of company missions, setting objectives for the organization in light of external and internal forces, formulating specific policies and strategies to achieve objectives, and ensuring their proper implementation so that the basic purposes and objectives of the organization will be achieved." (George A  Steiner & John B. Miner,"Management Policy and Strategy", 1977)

"Strategy is a mediating force between the organization and its environment: consistent patterns of streams of organizational decisions to deal with the environment." (Henry Mintzberg, "The Structuring of Organizations", 1979)

"Strategy is defined as orienting 'metaphases' or frames of reference that allow the organization and its environment to be understood by organizational stakeholders. On this basis, stakeholders are motivated to believe and to act in ways that are expected to produce favorable results for the organization." (Ellen E Chaffee, "Three Models of Strategy," Academy of Management Review Vol. 10 (1), 1985) 

"Strategy is the creation of a unique and valuable position, involving a different set of activities. [...] Strategy is creating fit among a company’s activities." (Michael E Porter, "What is Strategy?", Harvard Business Review, 1996)

"General direction set for the organization and its various components to achieve a desired state in the future, resulting from the detailed strategic planning process." (Alan Wa Steiss, "Strategic Management for Public and Nonprofit Organizations", 2003)

"An organized set of initiation programs and projects undertaken in order to achieve the organization ’ s vision." (Terry Schimidt, "Strategic Management Made Simple", 2009)

"This is a plan of action stating how an organisation will achieve its long-term objectives." (Bernard Burnes, "Managing change : a strategic approach to organisational dynamics" 5th Ed., 2009)

"The essential course of action attempted to achieve an enterprise’s end - particularly goals. Moreover, a strategy must be to carry out exactly one mission. In general, strategies address goals, and tactics address objectives." (David C Hay, "Data Model Patterns: A Metadata Map", 2010)

"A broad-based formula for how a business is going to accomplish its mission, what its goals should be, and what plans and policies will be needed to carry out those goals."  (Linda Volonino & Efraim Turban, "Information Technology for Management" 8th Ed., 2011)

"denotes, by an extension of military language, the development of a policy by the enterprise (its objectives, structure, and operation), defined on one hand on the basis of its strengths and weaknesses and, on the other hand, taking into account threats and opportunities identified in its environment." (Humbert Lesca & Nicolas Lesca, "Weak Signals for Strategic Intelligence", 2011)

"A comprehensive plan that states how a corporation will achieve its mission and objectives." (Thomas L Wheelen & J David Hunger., "Strategic management and business policy: toward global sustainability" 13th Ed., 2012)

"The proposed direction an organization will achieve over the long term, through the configuration of resources in a challenging environment, to meet the needs of markets and to fulfill stakeholder expectations." (Paul C Dinsmore et al, "Enterprise Project Governance", 2012)

"A strategy is a comprehensive plan guiding resource allocation to achieve long-term organization goals." (John R Schermerhorn Jr, "Management" 12th Ed., 2012)

"The definition of the model’s goals, the high-level approach to achieve these goals, and the decision making mechanisms to execute this approach." (Panos Alexopoulos, "Semantic Modeling for Data", 2020)

"Strategy is a style of thinking, a conscious and deliberate process, an intensive implementation system, the science of insuring future success." (Pete Johnson)

"Strategy is the way an organization seeks to achieve its vision and mission. It is a forward-looking statement about an organization’s planned use of resources and deployment capabilities. Strategy becomes real when it is associated with: 1) a concrete set of goals and objectives; and 2) a method involving people, resources and processes." (Intrafocus)
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