31 January 2009

DBMS: Static SQL (Definitions)

[static query:] "A previously saved query that is optimized for a particular execution plan. The opposite of an ad hoc query." (Microsoft Corporation, "Microsoft SQL Server 7.0 Data Warehouse Training Kit", 2000)

"SQL that has been compiled prior to execution." (Ajay Gupta et al, "Informix Dynamic Server 11", 2007)

"SQL statements in an application that do not change at runtime and, therefore, can be hard-coded into the application." (John Goodson & Robert A Steward, "The Data Access Handbook", 2009)

[Static embedded SQL:] "Embedded SQL in which the entire SQL statement can be specified when the program is written, allowing the statement to be precompiled before the program is executed." (Jan L Harrington, "SQL Clearly Explained” 3rd Ed. , 2010)

[static query:] "A stored, precompiled SQL query, optimized for access against a particular database design." (DAMA International, "The DAMA Dictionary of Data Management", 2011)

"A style of embedded SQL in which the SQL statements do not change while the application is running." (Carlos Coronel et al, "Database Systems: Design, Implementation, and Management" 9th Ed., 2011)

"SQL statements, embedded within a program, that are prepared during the program preparation process (before the program is executed). After being prepared, the SQL statement does not change (although values of host variables specified by the statement might change." (Kirsten A Larsen et al, "Extremely pureXML in DB2 10 for z/OS", 2011)

"SQL queries that are preprocessed and whose access paths are determined during the bind procedure, prior to execution." (Craig S Mullins, "Database Administration", 2012)

"SQL statements that are embedded within a program and are bound before the program is executed. After being bound, a static SQL statement does not change, although values of host variables specified by the statement can change. " (Sybase, "Open Server Server-Library/C Reference Manual", 2019)

"A program where access to the database has been predetermined by the programmer and any input from the user will not change this access pattern. Put another way, all SQL statements are already part of the program when it is executed." (Microfocus)

"A type of embedded SQL in which SQL statements are hard-coded and compiled when the rest of the program is compiled." (Microsoft) 

"It is called static SQL because the SQL statements in the program are static; that is, they do not change each time the program is run."  (Microsoft) [source]


DBMS: Dynamic SQL (Definitions)

"Dynamic SQL is a method of binding between an application program, in one of a number of standard programming languages, and an SQL-implementation." (ISO/IEC 9075-1, 1999)

"In Embedded SQL for C, a SQL statement built and executed at run time." (Microsoft Corporation, "SQL Server 7.0 System Administration Training Kit", 1999)

"SQL that is interpreted during execution of the statement." (Ajay Gupta et al, "Informix Dynamic Server 11", 2007)

"A SQL statement built and executed at runtime by concatenating different parts of the statement based on provided variables." (Darril Gibson, "MCITP SQL Server 2005 Database Developer All-in-One Exam Guide", 2008)

"[...] dynamic SQL is a means of constructing SQL statements as strings in your server-side (or even client-side) applications and executing them dynamically, on the fly. When used properly, dynamic SQL can be used to generate complex queries at runtime, in some cases improve performance, and do tasks that just aren't possible (or are extremely difficult) in standard, nondynamic T-SQL." (Michael Coles, "Pro T-SQL 2008 Programmer's Guide", 2008)

"SQL statements that are constructed at runtime; for example, the application may allow users to enter their own queries. These types of SQL statements are not hard-coded into the application. See also static SQL." (John Goodson & Robert A Steward, "The Data Access Handbook", 2009)

[Dynamic embedded SQL:] "Embedded SQL in which the entire SQL statement cannot be assembled prior to running the program. The SQL statement is therefore completed and processed during the program run." (Jan L Harrington, "SQL Clearly Explained” 3rd Ed., 2010)

"A term used to describe an environment in which the SQL statement is not known in advance, but instead is generated at run time. In a dynamic SQL environment, a program can generate the SQL statements at run time that are required to respond to ad hoc queries." (Carlos Coronel et al, "Database Systems: Design, Implementation, and Management” 9th Ed., 2011)

"Dynamically constructed SQL queries that are not pre-processed, and whose access paths are determined at run time prior to execution." (DAMA International, "The DAMA Dictionary of Data Management", 2011)

"SQL statements that are prepared and executed within an application program while the program is executing. In dynamic SQL, the SQL source is contained in host language variables rather than being coded into the application program. The SQL statement can change several times during the application program's execution." (Kirsten A Larsen et al, "Extremely pureXML in DB2 10 for z/OS", 2011)

"SQL queries that are not preprocessed and whose access paths are determined at run time right before execution." (Craig S Mullins, "Database Administration", 2012)

"Allows an Embedded SQL or Client-Library application to execute SQL statements containing variables whose values are determined at runtime." (Sybase, "Open Server Server-Library/C Reference Manual", 2019)

[dynamic SQL statements:] "An SQL statement that is prepared and executed at run time. In dynamic SQL, the SQL statement is contained as a character string in a host variable and is not precompiled." (Sybase, "Open Server Server-Library/C Reference Manual", 2019)

"A feature that lets you create and execute prepared statements using more robust, secure, and efficient methods to substitute parameter values than the naive technique of concatenating the parts of the statement into a string variable." (MySQL)

"A program in which user input determines how the program interacts with the database. Put another way, the SQL statements are not part of the program when it is launched; instead they are built as the program runs." (Microfocus)

"A type of embedded SQL in which SQL statements are created and compiled at run time." (Microsoft) 

"Dynamic SQL is a programming technique that enables you to build SQL statements dynamically at runtime. You can create more general purpose, flexible applications by using dynamic SQL because the full text of a SQL statement may be unknown at compilation." (Oracle) [source]

"Dynamic SQL is an application that uses dynamic code to increase flexibility in querying a database. Dynamic code is generated at execution of a SQL application by inserting statements into variables." (Idera) [source]

30 January 2009

DBMS: Database Administrator (Definitions)

"The person responsible for creating, installing, configuring, and maintaining databases. Often the system administrator serves as the database administrator." (Microsoft Corporation, "Microsoft SQL Server 7.0 Data Warehouse Training Kit", 2000)

"An individual responsible for management of an RDBMS. Responsibilities may include user management, indexing, tuning, and backup and recovery." (Christopher Adamson, "Mastering Data Warehouse Aggregates", 2006)

"A person or group of people responsible for the design and supervision of a data base." (S. Sumathi & S. Esakkirajan, "Fundamentals of Relational Database Management Systems", 2007)

"An individual responsible for the installation, configuration, administration, monitoring, and maintenance of the DBMS and its physical databases." (Craig S Mullins, "Database Administration", 2012)

"The person who manages a database. The administrator determines the content, internal structure, and access strategy for a database, defines security and integrity, and monitors performance." (Microsoft, "SQL Server 2012 Glossary", 2012)

"One who is responsible for databases used in the business environment; duties might include performing database updates, tuning database performance, coordinating on server hardware and OS issues, defining backup and restore strategies, and of course, security." (Mike Harwood, "Internet Security: How to Defend Against Attackers on the Web" 2nd Ed., 2015)

"The person (or persons) who has (have) the highest possible privileges inside the Oracle database, responsible for its care and feeding, and accountable if there is a loss or corruption of data. In charge of tasks such as space allocation, overall performance tuning, database security and privilege allocation, and physical database design. Some DBAs also perform dual duty as application developers." (Bill Pribyl & Steven Feuerstein, "Learning Oracle PL/SQL", 2001)

"The organizational function charged with the day-to-day monitoring and care of the databases. The DBA function is more closely associated with physical database design than the DA [Data Administrator] is." (William H Inmon, "Building the Data Warehouse", 2005)

"The person in a software organization who is in charge of designing, creating, and maintaining the databases of an enterprise. The DBA makes use of a variety of software tools provided by a DBMS." (Toby J Teorey, ", Database Modeling and Design" 4th Ed., 2010)

"The IT professional role responsible for database administration, usually in the context of a particular DBMS, hence often prefixed with the name of the DBMS, e.g., Oracle DBA. Functional responsibilities vary based on further definitions." (DAMA International, "The DAMA Dictionary of Data Management", 2011)

"The person responsible for planning, organizing, controlling, and monitoring the centralized and shared corporate database. The DBA is the general manager of the database administration department." (Carlos Coronel et al, "Database Systems: Design, Implementation, and Management" 9th Ed", 2011)

"A person who is responsible for the design, development, operation, maintenance, and use of a database." (Sybase, "Open Server Server-Library/C Reference Manual", 2019)

"A person who has the responsibility for maintaining a database." (Jan L Harrington, "Relational Database Design and Implementation" 3rd Ed., 2009)

28 January 2009

DBMS: Cursors (Definitions)

"A symbolic name associated with a Transact-SQL select statement through a declaration statement. Cursors consist of two parts: the cursor result set and the cursor position." (Karen Paulsell et al, "Sybase SQL Server: Performance and Tuning Guide", 1996)

"Database objects with which applications manipulate data by rows instead of by sets. Using cursors, multiple operations can be performed row-by-row against a result set with or without returning to the original table. For example, a cursor can generate a list of all user-defined table names within a database. Cursors are extremely powerful when combined with stored procedures and the EXECUTE statement." (Patrick Dalton, "Microsoft SQL Server Black Book", 1997)

"An object used to navigate through  records." (Rob Scrimger et al, "MCSE TestPrep: SQL Server 6.5  Administration", 1998)

"A database object used by applications to manipulate data by rows instead of by sets. Using cursors, multiple operations can be performed row by row against a result set with or without returning to the original table. In other words, cursors conceptually return a result set based on tables within the database(s)." (Microsoft Corporation, "Microsoft SQL Server 7.0 System Administration Training Kit", 1999)

"An entity that maps over a result set and establishes a position on a single row within the result set. After the cursor is positioned on a row, operations can be performed on that row, or on a block of rows starting at that position. The most common operation is to fetch (retrieve) the current row or block of rows." (Microsoft Corporation, "Microsoft SQL Server 2000 System Administration", 2001)

"A marker that indicates the current position within a result set." (Peter Gulutzan & Trudy Pelzer, "SQL Performance Tuning", 2002)

"An entity that maps over a result set and establishes a position on a single row within the result set." (Anthony Sequeira & Brian Alderman, "The SQL Server 2000 Book", 2003)

"A construct that holds a rowset from a SELECT statement, which can then be stepped through row by row for various operations." (Thomas Moore, "EXAM CRAM™ 2: Designing and Implementing Databases with SQL Server 2000 Enterprise Edition", 2005)

"Queries in SQL Server return a block of rows called a recordset . A cursor is a subset of a recordset with the added ability to move back and forth through the records." (Joseph L Jorden & Dandy Weyn, "MCTS Microsoft SQL Server 2005: Implementation and Maintenance Study Guide - Exam 70-431", 2006)

"A pointer to the result set of a query. Clients can iterate through a cursor to retrieve results." (MongoDb, 2008)

"An object that allows a program to work through the records returned by a query one at a time. Some databases allow cursors to move forward and backward through the set of returned records whereas others allow only forward movement." (Rod Stephens, "Beginning Database Design Solutions", 2008)

"A moving placement or pointer that indicates a position, used in programs to overcome the impedance mismatch between SQL (set-at-a-time processing) and application programs (record-at-a-time processing)." (Craig S Mullins, "Database Administration", 2012)

"A database element that controls record navigation, updateability of data, and the visibility of changes made to the database by other users." (Microsoft) 

"A handle or name for a private SQL area in the PGA. Because cursors are closely associated with private SQL areas, the terms are sometimes used interchangeably." (Oracle)

"A named control structure used by an application program to point to and select a row of data from a set." (IBM)

"A piece of software that returns rows of data to the application." (Microsoft) 

"A symbolic name that is associated with a SQL statement. In Embedded SQL, a cursor is a data selector that passes multiple rows of data to the host program, one row at a time." (Sybase)

"An embedded SQL query that returns multiple rows." (Microfocus) 

"An internal MySQL data structure that represents the result set of an SQL statement. Often used with prepared statements and dynamic SQL. It works like an iterator in other high-level languages, producing each value from the result set as requested." (MySQL)

27 January 2009

DBMS: Unique Index (Definitions)

"Indexes which do not permit any two rows in the specified columns to have the same value. SQL Server checks for duplicate values when you create the index (if data already exists) and each time data is added." (Karen Paulsell et al, "Sybase SQL Server: Performance and Tuning Guide", 1996)

"Restricts duplicate values in a column." (Owen Williams, "MCSE TestPrep: SQL Server 6.5 Design and Implementation", 1998)

"An index in which no two rows are permitted to have the same index value, thus prohibiting duplicate index or key values. The system checks for duplicate key values when the index is created and checks each time data is added with an INSERT or UPDATE statement." (Microsoft Corporation, "SQL Server 7.0 System Administration Training Kit", 1999)

"An index with perfect selectivity, that is, an index with no duplicate values allowed. Standard SQL allows multiple NULLs in a unique index, since a NULL is not considered to be equal to any other value, including another NULL. Many DBMSs, however, accept only one NULL in a unique index. Some DBMSs won't allow even a single NULL." (Peter Gulutzan & Trudy Pelzer, "SQL Performance Tuning", 2002)

"A b-tree index whose keys are not duplicated." (Bob Bryla, "Oracle Database Foundations", 2004)

"This is a special index that prevents users from inserting the same value into a column (or columns) more than once." (Joseph L Jorden & Dandy Weyn, "MCTS Microsoft SQL Server 2005: Implementation and Maintenance Study Guide - Exam 70-431", 2006)

"An index that enforces uniqueness for a particular field across a single collection." (MongoDb, "Glossary", 2008)

"Sometimes created explicitly by the user, and sometimes created automatically by the database server. By guaranteeing one-and-only-one value for a given table, this structure speeds access to information and preserves data integrity." (Robert D. Schneider and Darril Gibson, "Microsoft SQL Server 2008 All-In-One Desk Reference For Dummies", 2008)

"An index in which no two rows are permitted to have the same index value, thus prohibiting duplicate index or key values." (Microsoft, "SQL Server 2012 Glossary,", 2012)

"An index that ensures that no identical key values are stored in a column or a set of columns in a table." (Sybase, "Open Server Server-Library/C Reference Manual", 2019)

26 January 2009

DBMS: CLR stored procedure (Definitions)

 "A stored procedure that is created by referencing a SQL Server assembly. The implementation of the CLR stored procedure is defined in an assembly that is created in the .NET Framework CLR." (Thomas Moore, "MCTS 70-431: Implementing and Maintaining Microsoft SQL Server 2005", 2006)

"A stored procedure created against a SQL Server assembly whose implementation is defined in an assembly created in the .NET Framework common language runtime (CLR)." (Microsoft, "SQL Server 2012 Glossary", 2012)

DBMS: Table-Valued Functions (Definitions)

"a function that returns a result set because it returns a SELECT statement from a table." (Joseph L Jorden & Dandy Weyn, "MCTS Microsoft SQL Server 2005: Implementation and Maintenance Study Guide - Exam 70-431", 2006)

"User-defined function in which a table is returned as a result, as opposed to a single data value." (Sara Morganand & Tobias Thernstrom , MCITP Self-Paced Training Kit : Designing and Optimizing Data Access by Using Microsoft SQL Server 2005 - Exam 70-442, 2007)

"A user-defined function that returns a table." (Microsoft, "SQL Server 2012 Glossary", 2012)

25 January 2009

DBMS: System Stored Procedure (Definitions)

"Stored procedures that SQL Server supplies for use in system administration. These procedures are provided as shortcuts for retrieving information from the system tables, or mechanisms for accomplishing database administration and other tasks that involve updating system tables." (Karen Paulsell et al, "Sybase SQL Server: Performance and Tuning Guide", 1996)

"A SQL Server-supplied, precompiled collection of Transact-SQL statements. System stored procedures are provided as shortcuts for retrieving information from system tables or as mechanisms for accomplishing database administration and other tasks that involve updating system tables. The names of all system stored procedures begin with sp_. System stored procedures are located in the master database and are owned by the system administrator, but many of them can be run from any database. If a system stored procedure is executed in a database other than master, it operates on the system tables in the database from which it is executed. You can write stored procedures (called user-defined stored procedures), which can be executed from any database." (Microsoft Corporation, "SQL Server 7.0 System Administration Training Kit", 1999)

"A set of SQL Server-supplied stored procedures that can be used for actions such as retrieving information from the system catalog or performing administration tasks." (Anthony Sequeira & Brian Alderman, "The SQL Server 2000 Book", 2003)

"A type of stored procedure that supports all of the administrative tasks required to run a SQL Server system." (SQL Server 2012 Glossary, "Microsoft", 2012)


DBMS: Remote Stored Procedure (Definitions)

 "A collection of SQL statements and optional control-of-flow statements stored under a name on a remote server. Remote stored procedures can be called by clients or by SQL Server." (Microsoft Corporation, "SQL Server 7.0 System Administration Training Kit", 1999)

"A stored procedure located on one instance of SQL Server that is executed by a statement on another instance of SQL Server. In SQL Server 2000, remote stored procedures are supported, but distributed queries offer greater functionality." (Anthony Sequeira & Brian Alderman, "The SQL Server 2000 Book", 2003)

"A stored procedure located on one instance of SQL Server that is executed by a statement on another instance of SQL Server." (Microsoft, "SQL Server 2012 Glossary", 2012)

DBMS: Materialized View (Definitions)

"A view whose rows take up space. When you select from a view, the DBMS can elect to do one of two things: (a) it can get the rows from the original table, convert any derived columns, and pass the results to the application or (b) it can create a temporary table and put the rows from the original table(s) into the temporary table, then select from the temporary copy. The latter case results in a materialized view. Materialization is often necessary when there is no one-to-one correspondence between the original table's rows and the view's rows (because there is a grouping) or when many tables are affected and concurrency would be harmed (because there is a join)." (Peter Gulutzan & Trudy Pelzer, "SQL Performance Tuning", 2002)

"A view that stores the results of the query the view is based on, in addition to the SQL join statement of the view itself. Materialized views may be refreshed manually (on demand), on a regular basis, or when there is a change in the underlying tables on which that view is based." (Bob Bryla, "Oracle Database Foundations", 2004)

"A physically preconstructed view of data containing data copied into the materialized view. Materialized views can be highly efficient in read-only environments and are often used for replication, distribution and in data warehouses." (Gavin Powell, "Beginning Database Design", 2006)

"A view that physically exists through a number of underlying indexes that have been created on it." (Marilyn Miller-White et al, "MCITP Administrator: Microsoft® SQL Server™ 2005 Optimization and Maintenance 70-444", 2007)

"A dynamic table that not only contains the SQL query command to generate the rows but also stores the actual rows. The materialized view is created the first time the query is run and the summary rows are stored in the table. The materialized view rows are automatically updated when the base tables are updated." (Carlos Coronel et al, "Database Systems: Design, Implementation, and Management 9th Ed", 2011)

"A view that is actually stored as a separate object in order to optimize performance." (DAMA International, "The DAMA Dictionary of Data Management", 2011)

"A view in which the query result is cached as a concrete table that may be updated from the original base tables from time to time." (Microsoft, "SQL Server 2012 Glossary", 2012)

"A schema object that stores a query result. All materialized views are either read-only or updatable." (Oracle, "Database SQL Tuning Guide Glossary", 2013)

"An optimized database object that contains the results of a query. Materialized views can be considered as a form of caching." (Piethein Strengholt, "Data Management at Scale", 2020)

DBMS: Schemas (Definitions)

"A description of a database generated by the data definition language (DDL) of the database management system (DBMS)." (Microsoft Corporation, "SQL Server 7.0 System Administration Training Kit", 1999)

"The structure of a database, which includes the definitions of the objects. The database schema includes the tables, columns, defaults, indexes, and relationships." (Microsoft Corporation, "Microsoft SQL Server 7.0 Data Warehouse Training Kit", 2000)

"Database schema refers to the names of tables, fields, data types, and primary and foreign keys of a database. Database schema is also known as the database structure." (Anthony Sequeira & Brian Alderman, "The SQL Server 2000 Book", 2003)

"A group of related database objects assigned to a database user. A schema contains tables, views, indexes, sequences, and SQL code. The schema name can be used to qualify objects that are not owned by the user referencing the objects." (Bob Bryla, "Oracle Database Foundations", 2004)

"In the SQL-92 standard, a collection of database objects that are owned by a single user and form a single namespace. A namespace is a set of objects that cannot have duplicate names" (Thomas Moore, "EXAM CRAM™ 2: Designing and Implementing Databases with SQL Server 2000 Enterprise Edition", 2005)

"A description of data that provides context and structure. There are many types of schemas, including database schemas and XML schemas." (Tom Petrocelli, "Data Protection and Information Lifecycle Management", 2005)

"The design of the physical database that defines the tables in the database that correspond to physical data objects. The physical database schema is often referred to by CDI vendors as their data model." (Jill Dyché & Evan Levy, "Customer Data Integration: Reaching a Single Version of the Truth", 2006)

"A grouping mechanism for objects inside a database. A schema is owned by a user, and various users can be assigned permission to use objects in a schema. In SQL Server 2005 the schema is separated from the object owner and is used as the third part of the four-part naming system for objects, which is server.database.schema.object." (Marilyn Miller-White et al, "MCITP Administrator: Microsoft® SQL Server™ 2005 Optimization and Maintenance 70-444", 2007)

"A group of database objects that make up a given namespace. Objects include tables, views, and statements that grant or revoke access to other securable objects. No two objects in any namespace can have the same name." (Robert D. Schneider and Darril Gibson, "Microsoft SQL Server 2008 All-In-One Desk Reference For Dummies", 2008)

"In SQL Server 2000, the schema identified the model of the database. For example, the tables, VIEWs, data types, and so on would be identified as the schema. In SQL Server 2005, the term schema is used to identify a collection of database entities within a single namespace. Schemas are the owners of the objects, and one or more users can be the owners of schemas." (Darril Gibson, "MCITP SQL Server 2005 Database Developer All-in-One Exam Guide", 2008)

"A collection of tables that forms a database." (Paulraj Ponniah, "Data Warehousing Fundamentals for IT Professionals", 2010)

"A conceptual data model that shows all the relationships among the data elements under consideration in a given context; the collection of table definitions in a relational database." (Toby J Teorey, "Database Modeling and Design" 4th Ed, 2010)

"In database design theory, the overall logical design of a database. In a SQL DBMS, a group of tables and supporting elements such as views and indexes." (Jan L Harrington, "SQL Clearly Explained 3rd Ed. ", 2010)

"(1) The logical or physical definition of data elements, physical characteristics, and relationships. (2) The diagram representing a logical data model." (Craig S Mullins, "Database Administration: The Complete Guide to DBA Practices and Procedures 2nd Ed", 2012)

"The names of tables, fields, data types, and primary and foreign keys of a database." (Microsoft, "SQL Server 2012 Glossary", 2012)

21 January 2009

DBMS: Clustered Index (Definitions)

"An index in which the physical order and the logical (indexed) order is the same. The leaf level of a clustered index represents the data pages themselves." (Karen Paulsell et al, "Sybase SQL Server: Performance and Tuning Guide", 1996)

"A clustered index forces the rows in a table to be physically stored in sorted order, using one or more columns from the table to sort the rows. A table may have only one clustered index, such as a dictionary." (Owen Williams, "MCSE TestPrep: SQL Server 6.5 Design and Implementation", 1998)

"An index that the DBMS uses to determine the order of data rows, according to values in one or more columns, called the cluster key. With a strong-clustered index, the data pages are the index's leaves and are thus always in order. With a weak-clustered index, data pages are separate from index leaf pages and the rows need not be 100% in order. The terms weak clustered index and strong-clustered index are not common usage; they appear only in this book." (Peter Gulutzan & Trudy Pelzer, "SQL Performance Tuning", 2002)

"An index in which the logical order of the key values determines the physical order of the corresponding rows in a table." (Anthony Sequeira & Brian Alderman, "The SQL Server 2000 Book", 2003)

"A clustered index in SQL Server is a type of index in which the logical order of key values determines the actual data rows; thereby the data rows are kept sorted. Using a clustered index causes the actual data rows to move into the leaf level of the index." (Thomas Moore, "EXAM CRAM™ 2: Designing and Implementing Databases with SQL Server 2000 Enterprise Edition", 2005)

"This is an index that physically rearranges the data that is inserted into your tables." (Joseph L Jorden & Dandy Weyn, "MCTS Microsoft SQL Server 2005: Implementation and Maintenance Study Guide - Exam 70-431", 2006)

"An index whose leaf level is the actual data page of the table." (Sara Morganand & Tobias Thernstrom , "MCITP Self-Paced Training Kit : Designing and Optimizing Data Access by Using Microsoft SQL Server 2005 - Exam 70-442", 2007)

"An index in which the logical order of the key values determines the physical order of the corresponding rows in a table." (Microsoft, "SQL Server 2012 Glossary", 2012)

"This is an index that contains a table’s row data in its leaf-level nodes." (Jay Natarajan et al, "Pro T-SQL 2012 Programmer's Guide" 3rd Ed, 2012)

"An index that contains a table’s row data in its leaf-level nodes." (Miguel Cebollero et al, "Pro T-SQL Programmer’s Guide" 4th Ed, 2015)

"An index whose sequence of key values closely corresponds to the sequence of rows stored in a table. The degree of correspondence is measured by statistics that are used by the optimizer." (Sybase, "Open Server Server-Library/C Reference Manual", 2019)

DBMS: Clustered Index (Definitions)

"An index in which the physical order and the logical (indexed) order is the same. The leaf level of a clustered index represents the data pages themselves." (Karen Paulsell et al, "Sybase SQL Server: Performance and Tuning Guide", 1996)

"An index that the DBMS uses to determine the order of data rows, according to values in one or more columns, called the cluster key. With a strong-clustered index, the data pages are the index's leaves and are thus always in order. With a weak-clustered index, data pages are separate from index leaf pages and the rows need not be 100% in order. The terms weak clustered index and strong-clustered index are not common usage; they appear only in this book." (Peter Gulutzan & Trudy Pelzer, "SQL Performance Tuning", 2002)

"An index in which the logical order of the key values determines the physical order of the corresponding rows in a table." (Anthony Sequeira & Brian Alderman, "The SQL Server 2000 Book", 2003)

"A clustered index in SQL Server is a type of index in which the logical order of key values determines the actual data rows; thereby the data rows are kept sorted. Using a clustered index causes the actual data rows to move into the leaf level of the index." (Thomas Moore, "EXAM CRAM™ 2: Designing and Implementing Databases with SQL Server 2000 Enterprise Edition", 2005)

"This is an index that physically rearranges the data that is inserted into your tables." (Joseph L Jorden & Dandy Weyn, "MCTS Microsoft SQL Server 2005: Implementation and Maintenance Study Guide - Exam 70-431", 2006)

"A type of index in which the logical order of key values determines the actual order of the data rows and keeps the data rows sorted. Using a clustered index causes the actual data rows to move into the leaf level of the index." (Thomas Moore, "MCTS 70-431: Implementing and Maintaining Microsoft SQL Server 2005", 2006)

"A SQL Server index where the sorted order is the physical order. A table can have only a single clustered index." (Marilyn Miller-White et al, "MCITP Administrator: Microsoft® SQL Server™ 2005 Optimization and Maintenance 70-444", 2007)

"An index whose leaf level is the actual data page of the table." (Sara Morganand & Tobias Thernstrom , "MCITP Self-Paced Training Kit : Designing and Optimizing Data Access by Using Microsoft SQL Server 2005 - Exam 70-442", 2007)

"This is an index that contains a table's row data in its leaf-level nodes." (Michael Coles, "Pro T-SQL 2008 Programmer's Guide", 2008)

"An index in which the logical order of the key values determines the physical order of the corresponding rows in a table." (Microsoft, "SQL Server 2012 Glossary", 2012)

"This is an index that contains a table’s row data in its leaf-level nodes." (Jay Natarajan et al, "Pro T-SQL 2012 Programmer's Guide" 3rd Ed, 2012)

"An index whose sequence of key values closely corresponds to the sequence of rows stored in a table. The degree of correspondence is measured by statistics that are used by the optimizer." (Sybase, "Open Server Server-Library/C Reference Manual", 2019)

"A special type of index used to optimize queries. Tables can have only one clustered index. The data is ordered the same way the index is ordered. It's similar to a dictionary or a phone book. When you find the word or name, you're pointed right at the data." (Darril Gibson, "MCITP SQL Server 2005 Database Developer All-in-One Exam Guide", 2008)

20 January 2009

DBMS: Non-Clustered Index (Definitions)

"An index that stores key values and pointers to data. The leaf level points to data pages rather than containing the data itself." (Karen Paulsell et al, "Sybase SQL Server: Performance and Tuning Guide", 1996)

"A nonclustered index does not physically arrange data, but points to the data in a table. The pointers are themselves sorted, making it easy to quickly locate data (search) within a table." (Owen Williams, "MCSE TestPrep: SQL Server 6.5 Design and Implementation", 1998)

"An index with a structure completely separate from the data rows it indexes; normally a B-tree. The lowest rows of a non-clustered index contain the index key values, with each key value pointing to the data rows that contain that key. The data rows are not stored in an order based on the index key, but rather in a heap." (Peter Gulutzan & Trudy Pelzer, "SQL Performance Tuning", 2002)

"An index in which the logical order of the index is different than the physical, stored order of the rows on disk." (Anthony Sequeira & Brian Alderman, "The SQL Server 2000 Book", 2003)

"An index in which the logical order of the index is different than the physical, stored order of the rows on disk. In contrast to clustered indexes, non-clustered indexes are totally separated from the actual data rows, causing an unsorted order of data based on non-clustered keys. Non-clustered indexes differ from the clustered indexes at the leaf level. The leaf level of a non-clustered index contains the key value and the row locator. The row locator is either the physical row address (if there is no clustered index) or the clustered index key value (if a clustered index exists)." (Thomas Moore, "EXAM CRAM™ 2: Designing and Implementing Databases with SQL Server 2000 Enterprise Edition", 2005)

"This is an index that does not physically rearrange the data that is inserted into your tables. This index contains pointers to the data that is stored in the table or clustered index." (Joseph L Jorden & Dandy Weyn, "MCTS Microsoft SQL Server 2005: Implementation and Maintenance Study Guide - Exam 70-431", 2006)

"An index in which the logical order of the index is different from the physical, stored order of the rows on disk. In contrast to clustered indexes, non-clustered indexes are totally separated from the actual data rows, causing an unsorted order of data based on non-clustered keys. Non-clustered indexes differ from clustered indexes at the leaf level. The leaf level of a non-clustered index contains the key value and the row locator. The row locator is either the physical row address (if there is no clustered index) or the clustered index key value (if a clustered index exists)." (Thomas Moore, "MCTS 70-431: Implementing and Maintaining Microsoft SQL Server 2005", 2006)

"A SQL Server index that is separate from the table." (Marilyn Miller-White et al, "MCITP Administrator: Microsoft® SQL Server™ 2005 Optimization and Maintenance 70-444", 2007)

"An index whose leaf level stores only the columns included in the index (key columns and included columns) and holds pointers to the rows in the actual table." (Sara Morganand & Tobias Thernstrom , "MCITP Self-Paced Training Kit : Designing and Optimizing Data Access by Using Microsoft SQL Server 2005 - Exam 70-442", 2007)

"A non-clustered index is added to optimize queries. Tables can have multiple non-clustered indexes. A non-clustered index is similar to the index in the back of a book. By finding it in the index, you know specifically where to look in the book for the information." (Darril Gibson, "MCITP SQL Server 2005 Database Developer All-in-One Exam Guide", 2008)

"A non-clustered index is an index that stores the clustering key or row ID to the row data in its leaf nodes, depending on whether the table is a clustered table or a heap." (Michael Coles, "Pro T-SQL 2008 Programmer's Guide", 2008)

"An index in which the logical order of the index key values is different than the physical order of the corresponding rows in a table. The index contains row locators that point to the storage location of the table data." (Microsoft, "SQL Server 2012 Glossary", 2012)

"A non-clustered index is an index that stores the clustering key or row ID to the row data in its leaf nodes, depending on whether the table is a clustered table or a heap." (Jay Natarajan et al, "Pro T-SQL 2012 Programmer's Guide" 3rd Ed., 2012)

"An index that stores the clustering key or row ID of the row data in its leaf nodes, depending on whether the table is a clustered table or a heap." (Miguel Cebollero et al, "Pro T-SQL Programmer’s Guide" 4th Ed., 2015)

15 January 2009

DBMS: Tables (Definitions)

"A collection of rows (records) that have associated columns (fields). The logical equivalent of a database file." (Karen Paulsell et al, "Sybase SQL Server: Performance and Tuning Guide", 1996)

"A collection of rows that have associated columns." (Patrick Dalton, "Microsoft SQL Server Black Book", 1997)

"The structure within a database that holds the data. A table is made iup of row and columns." (Owen Williams, "MCSE TestPrep: SQL Server 6.5 Design and Implementation", 1998)

"An object in a database that stores data as a collection of rows and columns." (Microsoft Corporation, "Microsoft SQL Server 7.0 System Administration Training Kit", 1999)

"A two-dimensional object, consisting of rows and columns, used to store data in a relational database. Each table stores information about one of the types of objects modeled by the database." (Microsoft Corporation, "Microsoft SQL Server 2000 System Administration", 2001)

"The basic construct of a relational database that contains rows and columns of related data." (Bob Bryla, "Oracle Database Foundations", 2004)

"A collection of rows holding similar columns of data. The corresponding formal database term is relation." (Rod Stephens, "Beginning Database Design Solutions", 2008)

"A two-dimensional storage location of data. Databases within SQL Server 2005 are composed of multiple related tables." (Darril Gibson, "MCITP SQL Server 2005 Database Developer All-in-One Exam Guide", 2008)

"A two-dimensional object, consisting of rows and columns, used to store data in a relational database. Each table stores information about one of the types of objects modeled by the database, such as information about sales orders." (Jim Joseph, "Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Reporting Services Unleashed", 2009)

"A two-dimensional array of data, consisting of one or more rows representing instances of the thing the table describes and one or more columns each containing a kind of data describing that thing." (David C Hay, "Data Model Patterns: A Metadata Map", 2010)

"In a relational database, the collection of rows (or records) of a single type (similar to a file)." (Toby J Teorey, ", Database Modeling and Design 4th Ed", 2010)

"A two-dimensional arrangement of data into rows and columns." (Craig S Mullins, "Database Administration", 2012)

"A database object that stores data in records (rows) and fields (columns). The data is usually about a particular category of things, such as employees or orders." (Microsoft, "SQL Server 2012 Glossary", 2012)

"In relational databases and also in Excel, where information is stored. Tables are essentially spreadsheets, or lists, that store database information." (E C Nelson & Stephen L Nelson, "Excel Data Analysis For Dummies ", 2015)

"In a relational database, a database object that consists of a specific number of columns and is used to store an unordered set of rows. See also base table, temporary table, view." (Sybase, "Open Server Server-Library/C Reference Manual", 2019)

DBMS: Indexes (Definitions)

"A database object that consists of key values from the data tables, and pointers to the pages that contain those values. Indexes speed up access to data rows." (Karen Paulsell et al, "Sybase SQL Server: Performance and Tuning Guide", 1996)

"A set of pointers that are logically ordered by the values of a key. An index is a database object that provides access to data in the rows of a table, based on key values. Indexes provide quick access to data and can enforce uniqueness on the rows in a table. SQL Server supports clustered and nonclustered indexes. In a clustered index, data is stored in the same order as the index; in a nonclustered index, data is stored differently from the index." (Patrick Dalton, "Microsoft SQL Server Black Book", 1997)

"A database object that provides fast access to data in the rows of a table, based on key values. Indexes can also enforce uniqueness on the rows in a table. SQL Server supports clustered and nonclustered indexes." (Anthony Sequeira & Brian Alderman, "The SQL Server 2000 Book", 2003)

"A database object designed to reduce the amount of time it takes to retrieve rows from a table. An index is created based on one or more columns in the table." (Bob Bryla, "Oracle Database Foundations", 2004)

"In a relational database, a database object that provides fast access to data in the rows of a table, based on key values. Indexes can also enforce uniqueness on the rows in a table. SQL Server supports clustered and non-clustered indexes. The primary key/unique constraint automatically causes an index to be built. In full-text searches, a full-text index stores information about significant words and their location within a given column." (Thomas Moore, "EXAM CRAM™ 2: Designing and Implementing Databases with SQL Server 2000 Enterprise Edition", 2005)

"A data structure that uses one or more columns to make looking up values on those columns faster." (Rod Stephens, "Beginning Database Design Solutions", 2008)

"In a relational database, a database object that provides fast access to data in the rows of a table, based on key values. The primary key of a table is automatically indexed." (Jim Joseph, "Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Reporting Services Unleashed", 2009)

"A physical database object used to quickly access data in a database." (Craig S Mullins, "Database Administration", 2012)

10 January 2009

DBMS: Aggregate Function (Definitions)

"A function that works on a set of cells to produce a single answer or set of answers, one for each subset of cells. The aggregate functions available in Transact-SQL are: average (avg), maximum (max), minimum (min), sum (sum), and count of the number of items (count)." (Karen Paulsell et al, "Sybase SQL Server: Performance and Tuning Guide", 1996)

"Include SUM, AVG, COUNT, COUNT(*), MAX, and MIN. These functions generate summary values that appear as new columns in query results. They act on the whole table or on a subset of the rows." (Owen Williams, "MCSE TestPrep: SQL Server 6.5 Design and Implementation", 1998)

"Functions that calculate summary values, such as averages and sums, from the values in a particular column and return a single value for each set of rows to which the function applies. The aggregate functions are AVG, COUNT, COUNT(*), MAX, MIN, SUM, STDEV, STDEVP, VAR, and VARP. Aggregate functions can be applied either to all rows in a table, to a subset of table rows specified by a WHERE clause, or to one or more groups of table rows specified by the GROUP BY clause." (Microsoft Corporation, "SQL Server 7.0 System Administration Training Kit", 1999)

"An aggregate function performs a calculation on a column in a set of rows and returns a single value." (Anthony Sequeira & Brian Alderman, "The SQL Server 2000 Book", 2003)

"A type of function in Oracle SQL that performs a calculation or transformation across multiple rows in a table, rather than just on a single row." (Bob Bryla, "Oracle Database Foundations", 2004)

"Functions that provide summary data over sets returning a singular value." (Thomas Moore, "EXAM CRAM™ 2: Designing and Implementing Databases with SQL Server 2000 Enterprise Edition", 2005)

"A function that performs a calculation at the column level on a set of rows to return a single value. Examples of T-SQL aggregate functions include AVG, MIN, and SUM." (Marilyn Miller-White et al, "MCITP Administrator: Microsoft® SQL Server™ 2005 Optimization and Maintenance 70-444", 2007)

"A function that produces a single result based on the contents of an entire set of table rows." (S. Sumathi & S. Esakkirajan, "Fundamentals of Relational Database Management Systems", 2007)

"A function that performs a summary calculation on a series of data and returns a single value. Each aggregate function uses the Scope parameter, which defines the scope (such as grouping, data set, or data region) in which the aggregate function is performed." (Jim Joseph et al, "Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Reporting Services Unleashed", 2009)

"A SQL function - for example, AVG and SUM - that computes a variety of measures based on values in one or more numeric columns." (Jan L Harrington, "SQL Clearly Explained 3rd Ed. ", 2010)

"A function that performs a calculation on multiple values and returns a single value." (Microsoft, "SQL Server 2012 Glossary", 2012)

"A function that optionally accepts arguments and returns a single scalar value that is the result of an evaluation of a set of like values, such as those in a column within a set of one or more rows. See also function, routine." (Sybase, "Open Server Server-Library/C Reference Manual", 2019)

"A function that generates a single value from a group of values, often used with GROUP BY and HAVING clauses. Aggregate functions include AVG, COUNT, MAX, MIN, and SUM. Also known as set functions. See also scalar function." (Microsoft, "ODBC Glossary")

"A function that performs a calculation on multiple values and returns a single summary value." (Microsoft Technet)

"In a query, a function such as COUNT, AVG, or STDEV that calculates a value using all the rows in a column of a table. In writing expressions and in programming, you can use SQL aggregate functions (including the three listed above) and domain aggregate functions to determine various statistics." (Microsoft, "ADO Glossary Terms")

DBMS: Function (Definitions)

"A set of instructions that operates as a single logical unit, can be called by name, accepts input parameters, and returns information. In programming languages such as C, a function is a named subroutine of a program that encapsulates some logic. The function can be called by name, using parameters to pass data into the function and retrieve data produced by the function. In Transact-SQL, a function is a unit of syntax consisting of a keyword and, usually, a set of parameters. There are several categories of Transact-SQL functions: string, math, system, niladic, text and image, date, aggregate, and conversion functions." (Microsoft Corporation, "SQL Server 7.0 System Administration Training Kit", 1999)

"A program that returns a value to the program or environment from which it is called." (Bill Pribyl & Steven Feuerstein, "Learning Oracle PL/SQL", 2001)

"A section of code that operates as a single logical unit. Transact-SQL supports both built-in functions and user-defined functions. The built-in functions cannot be modified by SQL Server 2000 users, whereas users can create and modify user- defined functions." (Anthony Sequeira & Brian Alderman, "The SQL Server 2000 Book", 2003)

"A named set of predefined programming language commands that performs a specific task given zero, one, or more arguments and returns a value." (Bob Bryla, "Oracle Database Foundations", 2004)

"A programming unit or expression returning a single value, also allowing determinant values to be passed in as parameters. Thus, parameter values can change the outcome or return result of a function. The beauty of a function is that it is self-contained and can thus be embedded into an expression." (Gavin Powell, "Beginning Database Design", 2006)

"A set of instructions that operates as a single logical unit." (S. Sumathi & S. Esakkirajan, "Fundamentals of Relational Database Management Systems", 2007)

"A centralized, server-based routine that can be included as part of your Transact-SQL statements. Typically used to streamline logic and reduce the amount of required programming effort, you can build your own functions." (Robert D Schneider & Darril Gibson, "Microsoft SQL Server 2008 All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies", 2008)

"Functions are routines that can accept parameters, perform an action, and return the result of that action. SQL Server includes many built-in functions. User- defined functions can be created to meet specific needs." (Darril Gibson, "MCITP SQL Server 2005 Database Developer All-in-One Exam Guide", 2008)

"A piece of code that operates as a single logical unit. A function is called by name, accepts optional input parameters, and returns a status and optional output parameters. Many programming languages support functions, including C, Visual Basic, and Transact-SQL. Transact-SQL supplies built-in functions, which cannot be modified, and supports user-defined functions, which can be created and modified by users." (Jim Joseph, "Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Reporting Services Unleashed", 2009)

"A small program that performs one task and returns a single value. It may be built into the SQL language or written by a user, database administrator, or application programmer." (Jan L Harrington, "SQL Clearly Explained" 3rd Ed., 2010)

"A piece of code that operates as a single logical unit. A function is called by name, accepts optional input parameters, and returns a status and optional output parameters. Many programming languages support functions." (SQL Server 2012 Glossary, "Microsoft", 2012)

"A predefined algorithm supported by the DBMS for converting, manipulating, or calculating data based upon input. Functions can be used within SQL statements any place an expression can be used." (Craig S Mullins, "Database Administration", 2012)

"A relationship between a set of input data values and a set of result values that is used to extend and customize SQL or XQuery. Functions are invoked from elements of SQL statements such as the select list or the FROM clause and from XQuery as primary expressions." (Sybase, "Open Server Server-Library/C Reference Manual", 2019)

04 January 2009

DBMS: User-defined Functions [UDFs] (Definitions)

"A Transact- SQL function defined by a user. Functions encapsulate frequently performed logic in a named entity that can be called by Transact-SQL statements instead of recoding the logic in each statement." (Microsoft Corporation, Microsoft SQL Server 2000 system administration, 2001)

"Functions that you write as opposed to built-in functions supplied by a programming language." (Greg Perry, "Sams Teach Yourself Beginning Programming in 24 Hours" 2nd Ed., 2001)

"A user-defined function is a Transact-SQL function defined by a user. Functions encapsulate frequently performed logic in a named entity that can be called by Transact-SQL statements instead of recoding the logic in each statement." (Anthony Sequeira & Brian Alderman, "The SQL Server 2000 Book", 2003)

"A function that is written by an analyst, user, or database administrator and does not come as part of the default installation of the Oracle server software." (Bob Bryla, "Oracle Database Foundations", 2004)

"A collection of T-SQL statements with a well-defined set of input parameters, but only one output which can be a scalar value or a table. User-defined functions allow the encapsulation of various logical and database operations, but cannot be used to affect changes to a database." (Thomas Moore, "EXAM CRAM™ 2: Designing and Implementing Databases with SQL Server 2000 Enterprise Edition", 2005)

"A custom function written by developers in SQL Server." (Marilyn Miller-White et al, "MCITP Administrator: Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Optimization and Maintenance 70-444" , 2007)

"A Transact-SQL function defined by a user. Functions encapsulate frequently performed logic in a named entity that can be called by Transact-SQL statements instead of recoding the logic in each statement." (Microsoft Docs, SQL Server 2005)

"Extensible code added to the DBMS to be callable like built-in database functions." (Craig S Mullins, "Database Administration" 2nd Ed, 2012)

"A function that is defined to the DB2 database system by using the CREATE FUNCTION statement and that can be referenced thereafter in SQL statements." (Sybase, "Open Server Server-Library/C Reference Manual", 2019)

"In SQL Server, a Transact-SQL function defined by a user." (Microsoft Technet)

"A user-defined routine that returns at least one value. (IBM)

03 January 2009

DBMS: Stored Procedures (Definitions)

"A collection of SQL statements and optional control-of-flow statements stored under a name. SQL Server-supplied stored procedures are called system procedures." (Karen Paulsell et al,  "Sybase SQL Server: Performance and Tuning Guide", 1996)

"Transact-SQL statements stored under a name and processed as a unit. Stored procedures are stored within a database and can be executed with one request from an application. A stored procedure can also allow user-declared variables, conditional execution, and other powerful programming features." (Patrick Dalton, Microsoft SQL Server Black Book, 1997)

"Transact-SQL programs stored on the server in a compiled form. Processing for these objects is done at the server level, making them as fast as any other tables the procedure references on the local machine. They can be used to enforce entity integrity, referential integrity, and domain integrity." (Rob Scrimger et al, "MCSE TestPrep: SQL Server 6.5  Administration", 1998)

"A precompiled collection of Transact-SQL statements and optional control-of-flow statements stored under a name and processed as a unit. Stored procedures are stored within a database, can be executed with one call from an application, and allow user-declared variables, conditional execution, and other powerful programming features." (Microsoft Corporation, "Microsoft SQL Server 7.0 System Administration Training Kit", 1999)

"A stored procedure is a group of Transact-SQL statements compiled into a single execution plan." (Microsoft Corporation, "SQL Server 2000 Books Online", 2000) 

"A program that resides and executes inside a database system. In Oracle, the term generally encompasses not only procedures but also functions and packages." (Bill Pribyl & Steven Feuerstein, "Learning Oracle PL/SQL", 2001)

"A software program stored in the database itself to be executed on the server based on stipulated conditions." (Paulraj Ponniah, "Data Warehousing Fundamentals", 2001)

"A precompiled collection of Transact-SQL statements stored under a name and processed as a unit." (Anthony Sequeira & Brian Alderman, "The SQL Server 2000 Book", 2003)

"A collection of T-SQL statements with a well-defined set of inputs, called input parameters, and a well-defined set of outputs, which may be output parameters, return values, or cursors. Stored procedures allow the encapsulation of various database operations." (Thomas Moore, "EXAM CRAM™ 2: Designing and Implementing Databases with SQL Server 2000 Enterprise Edition", 2005)

"A batch of SQL commands that are precompiled and saved as a procedure in SQL Server" (Joseph L Jorden & Dandy Weyn, "MCTS Microsoft SQL Server 2005: Implementation and Maintenance Study Guide - Exam 70-431", 2006)

"A collection of T-SQL statements with a well-defined set of inputs, called input parameters, and a well-defined set of outputs, which may be output parameters, return values, or cursors. Stored procedures allow the encapsulation of various database operations." (Thomas Moore, "MCTS 70-431: Implementing and Maintaining Microsoft SQL Server 2005", 2006)

"Also called a database procedure, a chunk of code stored within and executed from within a database, typically on data stored in a database (but not always)." (Gavin Powell, "Beginning Database Design", 2006)

"An executable code module in SQL Server." (Marilyn Miller-White et al, "MCITP Administrator: Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Optimization and Maintenance 70-444" , 2007)

"A piece of code stored in the database that can be executed by various pieces of code such as check constraints or application code. Stored procedures are a good place to store business logic that should not be built into the database's structure." (Rod Stephens, "Beginning Database Design Solutions", 2008)

"Centralized, server-based application code. Typically used to standardize business logic and reduce the amount of required programming effort, you can build your own stored procedures or leverage the many built-in stored procedures offered by SQL Server." (Robert D. Schneider & Darril Gibson, "Microsoft SQL Server 2008 All-In-One Desk Reference For Dummies", 2008)

"A precompiled collection of Transact-SQL statements stored under a name and processed as a unit." (Jim Joseph et al, "Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Reporting Services Unleashed", 2009)

"A set of SQL statements (subroutine) available to applications accessing a relational database system. Stored procedures are physically stored in the database." (John Goodson & Robert A Steward, "The Data Access Handbook", 2009)

"A software program stored in the database itself to be executed on the server based on stipulated conditions." (Paulraj Ponniah, "Data Warehousing Fundamentals for IT Professionals", 2010)

"An executable module stored in a database instance, to be invoked as part of the verification process for particular data elements." (David C Hay, "Data Model Patterns: A Metadata Map", 2010)

"A SQL program module that is invoked by an application program using the SQL CALL command." (Jan L Harrington, "SQL Clearly Explained" 3rd Ed., 2010)

"(1) A named collection of procedural and SQL statements. (2) Business logic stored on a server in the form of SQL code or some other DBMS-specific procedural language." (Carlos Coronel et al, "Database Systems: Design, Implementation, and Management" 9th Ed., 2011)

"A precompiled code routine stored within a Database Management System." (DAMA International, "The DAMA Dictionary of Data Management", 2011)

"A precompiled routine or program stored within the DBMS and executable using DBMS commands." (Craig S Mullins, "Database Administration" 2nd Ed, 2012)

"A precompiled collection of SQL statements and optional control-of-flow statements stored under a name and processed as a unit. They are stored in an SQL database and can be run with one call from an application." (Microsoft, "SQL Server 2012 Glossary", 2012)

"A database object that can contain executable database server logic. Permissions can be assigned to stored procedures in order to prevent unwanted data modifications and to provide more granular control of security." (Mark Rhodes-Ousley, "Information Security: The Complete Reference" 2nd Ed., 2013)

"A precompiled collection of SQL statements and optional control-of-flow statements stored under a name and processed as a unit. They are stored in an SQL database and can be run with one call from an application." (Microsoft Docs, SQL Server 2014)

"A block of code that is stored in an SQL database and can be called by applications. In some systems the code is written in an extended SQL dialect, in others it is written in a standard programming language and contains Embedded SQL. Stored procedures are used for one or more of the following reasons: to improve performance; to provide greater security; or to improve manageability." (Microfocus)

"A block of procedural constructs and embedded SQL statements that is stored in a database and that can be called by name. Stored procedures allow an application program to be run in two parts, one on the client and the other on the server, so that one call can produce several accesses to the database." (IBM)

"A named PL/SQL block or Java program that Oracle Database stores in the database. Applications can call stored procedures by name." (Oracle)

"A precompiled collection of code such as SQL statements and optional control-of-flow statements stored under a name and processed as a unit. Stored procedures are stored within a database; they can be executed with one call from an application and allow user-declared variables, conditional execution, and other powerful programming features." (Microsoft)

"A precompiled collection of Transact-SQL statements that are stored under a name and processed as a unit." (Microsoft Technet)

"A stored procedure is a combination of SQL statements and control and conditional handling statements that provides an interface to the database." (Teradata)

"A stored procedure is a precompiled executable object that contains one or more Transact-SQL statements." (Microsoft) [source

"A stored procedure is an executable object stored in a database." (Microsoft) [source]

02 January 2009

DBMS: Views (Definitions)

"An alternative way of looking at the data in one or more tables. Usually created as a subset of columns from one or more tables." (Karen Paulsell et al,  "Sybase SQL Server: Performance and Tuning Guide", 1996)

"Predefined query that provides an alternative method of looking at the data in one or more underlying tables. Typically views are used to focus a users view of data and for security." (Rob Scrimger et al, "MCSE TestPrep: SQL Server 6.5  Administration", 1998)

"An alternate way of looking at data from one or more tables in the database. A view is a virtual table, usually created as a subset of columns from one or more tables, which is expressed as a SELECT statement. Depending on the definition, data in base tables can be modified through views." (Microsoft Corporation, "Microsoft SQL Server 7.0 System Administration Training Kit", 1999)

"A 'virtual table', usually referring to a database object that has been named and created with SQL's CREATE VIEW statement. Usually created for read-only purposes, it is possible to update the database through some views; as of Oracle8, it is also possible to associate an INSTEAD OF trigger with a view to allow INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE operations on the view." (Bill Pribyl & Steven Feuerstein, "Learning Oracle PL/SQL", 2001)

"SQL statement that creates logical copies of a table or a complete query that can be used separately in a SELECT statement. Views are semantically independent, so the separate roles of a dimension usually are implemented as views." (Ralph Kimball & Margy Ross, "The Data Warehouse Toolkit" 2nd Ed., 2002)

"A database object that can be referenced the same way as a table in SQL statements. Views are defined using a SELECT statement and are analogous to an object that contains the result set of this statement." (Anthony Sequeira & Brian Alderman, "The SQL Server 2000 Book", 2003)

"A view is a relational database object that can be referenced and built by using SELECT statements to join data from one or more base tables. Views are similar to tables in that data can be retrieved and modified and indexes can be built." (Thomas Moore, "MCSE Training Guide 70-229: Designing and Implementing Databases with Microsoft® SQL Server™ 2000 Enterprise Edition", 2003)

"A database object that is based on a SELECT statement against one or more tables or other views in the database. A regular view does not store any data in the database; only the definition is stored. Views are also known as stored queries." (Bob Bryla, "Oracle Database Foundations", 2004)

"A relational database object that can be referenced and built by using SELECT statements to join data from one or more base tables. Views are similar to tables in that data can be retrieved and modified and indexes can be built." (Thomas Moore, "MCTS 70-431: Implementing and Maintaining Microsoft SQL Server 2005", 2006) 

"A query that is stored in the data dictionary and is rerun when called for. A view appears to a user to be a table." (Sikha S Bagui & Richard W Earp, "Learning SQL on SQL Server 2005", 2006)

"virtual representations of a table whose contents are defined by a query" (Joseph L Jorden & Dandy Weyn, "MCTS Microsoft SQL Server 2005: Implementation and Maintenance Study Guide - Exam 70-431", 2006)

 "A database object in SQL Server used to encapsulate a query. Commonly referred to as a virtual table." (Marilyn Miller-White et al, "MCITP Administrator: Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Optimization and Maintenance 70-444" , 2007)

"A virtual table which is derived from base table using a query." (S. Sumathi & S. Esakkirajan, "Fundamentals of Relational Database Management Systems", 2007)

"A virtual grouping of one or more tables, often done to reduce complexity while increasing security and reliability." (Robert D. Schneider & Darril Gibson, "Microsoft SQL Server 2008 All-In-One Desk Reference For Dummies", 2008)

"A stored SQL query from which a virtual table is created for use each time the name of the view is used." (Jan L Harrington, "SQL Clearly Explained" 3rd Ed., 2010)

"A virtual table consisting of columns and selected instances from other tables assembled in a systematic way." (David C Hay, "Data Model Patterns: A Metadata Map", 2010)

"A presentation of a set of data from one or more physical tables as one logical table. A view can include some or all the rows and columns from each contributing table, and can be defined as the result table from a SELECT statement." (DAMA International, "The DAMA Dictionary of Data Management", 2011)

"A virtual table, defined as a SQL SELECT statement, to provide a subset of data from one or more tables." (Craig S Mullins, "Database Administration" 2nd Ed, 2012)

"A virtual table that uses the result set of a saved query." (Faisal Akkawi et al, "MCSA Guide to Microsoft SQL Server 2012 - Exam #70-462", 2014)

"A database object that is created from one or more tables and can be used the same as a table. A view is a virtual table that has no storage requirements of its own." (Arie D Jones, "SQL in 24 Hours" 6th Ed., 2015)

"A virtual relation defined by the database administrator in order to keep subjects from viewing certain data." (Adam Gordon, "Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP CBK 4th Ed.", 2015)

01 January 2009

DBMS: Database Object (Definitions)

"One of the components of a database: table, view, index, procedure, trigger, column, default, or rule." (Karen Paulsell et al, "Sybase SQL Server: Performance and Tuning Guide", 1996)

"One of the components of a database: a table, index, trigger, view, key, constraint, default, rule, user-defined data type, or stored procedure." (Microsoft Corporation, "SQL Server 7.0 System Administration Training Kit", 1999)

"Any structure or entity that exists in an Oracle database, such as a table, index, PL/SQL program, or view. For a list of database objects owned by the current user, look in the data dictionary's USEROBJECTS view." (Bill Pribyl & Steven Feuerstein, "Learning Oracle PL/SQL", 2001)

"Any database component. It could be a table, index, trigger, view, key, constraint, default, rule, user-defined data type, or stored procedure in a database." (Anthony Sequeira & Brian Alderman, "The SQL Server 2000 Book", 2003)

"Any of the various items included in a database including tables, views, diagrams, and so on." (Victor Isakov et al, "MCITP Administrator: Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Optimization and Maintenance (70-444) Study Guide", 2007)

"Any object in a database, such as a table, a view, an index, a stored procedure, or a trigger." (Carlos Coronel et al, "Database Systems: Design, Implementation, and Management" 9th Ed., 2011)

"An object that exists in an installation of a database system, such as an instance, a database, a database partition group, a buffer pool, a table, or an index." (Sybase, "Open Server Server-Library/C Reference Manual", 2019)

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