09 July 2013

Knowledge Management: Mental Model (Definitions)

"A mental model is a cognitive construct that describes a person's understanding of a particular content domain in the world." (John Sown, "Conceptual Structures: Information Processing in Mind and Machine", 1984)

"A mental model is a data structure, in a computational system, that represents a part of the real world or of a fictitious world." (Alan Granham, "Mental Models as Representations of Discourse and Text", 1987)

"[…] a mental model is a mapping from a domain into a mental representation which contains the main characteristics of the domain; a model can be ‘run’ to generate explanations and expectations with respect to potential states. Mental models have been proposed in particular as the kind of knowledge structures that people use to understand a specific domain […]" (Helmut Jungermann, Holger Schütz & Manfred Thuering, "Mental models in risk assessment: Informing people about drugs", Risk Analysis 8 (1), 1988)

 "A mental model is a knowledge structure that incorporates both declarative knowledge (e.g., device models) and procedural knowledge (e.g., procedures for determining distributions of voltages within a circuit), and a control structure that determines how the procedural and declarative knowledge are used in solving problems (e.g., mentally simulating the behavior of a circuit)." (Barbara Y White & John R Frederiksen, "Causal Model Progressions as a Foundation for Intelligent Learning Environments", Artificial Intelligence 42, 1990)

"’Mental models’ are deeply ingrained assumptions, generalizations, or even pictures or images that influence how we understand the world and how we take action. [...] Mental models are deeply held internal images of how the world works, images that limit us to familiar ways of thinking and acting." (Peter Senge, "The Fifth Discipline”, 1990)

"[A mental model] is a relatively enduring and accessible, but limited, internal conceptual representation of an external system (historical, existing, or projected) [italics in original] whose structure is analogous to the perceived structure of that system." (James K Doyle & David N Ford, "Mental models concepts revisited: Some clarifications and a reply to Lane", System Dynamics Review 15 (4), 1999)

"In broad terms, a mental model is to be understood as a dynamic symbolic representation of external objects or events on the part of some natural or artificial cognitive system. Mental models are thought to have certain properties which make them stand out against other forms of symbolic representations." (Gert Rickheit & Lorenz Sichelschmidt, "Mental Models: Some Answers, Some Questions, Some Suggestions", 1999)

"A mental model is conceived […] as a knowledge structure possessing slots that can be filled not only with empirically gained information but also with ‘default assumptions’ resulting from prior experience. These default assumptions can be substituted by updated information so that inferences based on the model can be corrected without abandoning the model as a whole. Information is assimilated to the slots of a mental model in the form of ‘frames’ which are understood here as ‘chunks’ of knowledge with a well-defined meaning anchored in a given body of shared knowledge." (Jürgen Renn, “Before the Riemann Tensor: The Emergence of Einstein’s Double Strategy", 2005)

"A mental model is a mental representation that captures what is common to all the different ways in which the premises can be interpreted. It represents in 'small scale' how 'reality' could be - according to what is stated in the premises of a reasoning problem. Mental models, though, must not be confused with images." (Carsten Held et al, "Mental Models and the Mind", 2006)

"’Mental models’ are deeply ingrained assumptions, generalizations, or even pictures or images that influence how we understand the world and how we take action." (Jossey-Bass Publishers, "The Jossey-Bass Reader on Educational Leadership”, 2nd Ed. 2007)

"A mental model is an internal representation with analogical relations to its referential object, so that local and temporal aspects of the object are preserved." (Gert Rickheit et al, "The concept of communicative competence" [in "Handbook of Communication Competence"], 2008)

"Internal representations constructed on the spot when required by demands of an external task or by a self-generated stimulus. It enables activation of relevant schemata, and allows new knowledge to be integrated. It specifies causal actions among concepts that take place within it, and it can be interacted with in the mind." (Daniel Churchill, "Mental Models" [in "Encyclopedia of Information Technology Curriculum Integration"] , 2008)

"Mental models are representations of reality built in people’s minds. These models are based on arrangements of assumptions, judgments, and values. A main weakness of mental models is that people’s assumptions and judgments change over time and are applied in inconsistent ways when building explanations of the world." (Luis F Luna-Reyes, "System Dynamics to Understand Public Information Technology", 2008)

"A mental model is the collection of concepts and relationships about the image of real world things we carry in our heads" (Hassan Qudrat-Ullah, "System Dynamics Based Technology for Decision Support", 2009)

"A mental recreation of the states of the world reproduced cognitively in order to offer itself as a basis for reasoning." (Eshaa M Alkhalifa, "Open Student Models", 2009)

[Shared Mental Model:] "A mental model that is shared among team members, and may include: 1) task-specific knowledge, 2) task-related knowledge, 3) knowledge of teammates and 4) attitudes/beliefs." (Rosemarie Reynolds et al, "Measuring Shared Mental Models in Unmanned Aircraft Systems", 2015) 

"A network of knowledge content, as well as the relationships among the content."(Rosemarie Reynolds et al, "Measuring Shared Mental Models in Unmanned Aircraft Systems", 2015)

"A mental model (aka mental representation/image/picture) is a mental structure that attempts to model (depict, imagine) how real or imaginary things look like, work or fit together." (The Web of Knowledge) [source]

Resources:
Quotes on "Mental Models" at the-web-of-knowledge.blogspot.com.

07 July 2013

Knowledge Management: Concept Map (Definitions)

"Concept maps are built of nodes connected by connectors, which have written descriptions called linking phrases instead of polarity of strength. Concept maps can be used to describe conceptual structures and relations in them and the concept maps suit also aggregation and preservation of knowledge" (Hannu Kivijärvi et al, "A Support System for the Strategic Scenario Process", 2008) 

"A hierarchal picture of a mental map of knowledge." (Gregory MacKinnon, "Concept Mapping as a Mediator of Constructivist Learning", 2009)

"A tool that assists learners in the understanding of the relationships of the main idea and its attributes, also used in brainstorming and planning." (Diane L Judd, "Constructing Technology Integrated Activities that Engage Elementary Students in Learning", 2009)

"Concept maps are graphical knowledge representations that are composed to two components: (1) Nodes: represent the concepts, and (2) Links: connect concepts using a relationship." (Faisal Ahmad et al, "New Roles of Digital Libraries", 2009)

"A concept map is a diagram that depicts concepts and their hierarchical relationships." (Wan Ng & Ria Hanewald, "Concept Maps as a Tool for Promoting Online Collaborative Learning in Virtual Teams with Pre-Service Teachers", 2010)

"A diagram that facilitates organization, presentation, processing and acquisition of knowledge by showing relationships among concepts as node-link networks. Ideas in a concept map are represented as nodes and connected to other ideas/nodes through link labels." (Olusola O Adesope & John C Nesbit, "A Systematic Review of Research on Collaborative Learning with Concept Maps", 2010)

"A visual construct composed of encircled concepts (nodes) that are meaningfully inter-connected by descriptive concept links either directly, by branch-points (hierarchies), or indirectly by cross-links (comparisons). The construction of a concept map can serve as a tool for enhancing communication, either between an author and a student for a reading task, or between two or more students engaged in problem solving. (Dawndra Meers-Scott, "Teaching Critical Thinking and Team Based Concept Mapping", 2010)

"Are graphical ways of working with ideas and presenting information. They reveal patterns and relationships and help students to clarify their thinking, and to process, organize and prioritize. The visual representation of information through word webs or diagrams enables learners to see how the ideas are connected and understand how to group or organize information effectively." (Robert Z Zheng & Laura B Dahl, "Using Concept Maps to Enhance Students' Prior Knowledge in Complex Learning", 2010)

"Concept maps are hierarchical trees, in which concepts are connected with labelled, graphical links, most general at the top." (Alexandra Okada, "Eliciting Thinking Skills with Inquiry Maps in CLE", 2010)

"One powerful knowledge presentation format, devised by Novak, to visualize conceptual knowledge as graphs in which the nodes represent the concepts, and the links between the nodes are the relationships between these concepts." (Diana Pérez-Marín et al, "Adaptive Computer Assisted Assessment", 2010)

"A form of visualization showing relationships among concepts as arrows between labeled boxes, usually in a downward branching hierarchy." (DAMA International, "The DAMA Dictionary of Data Management", 2011)

"A graphical depiction of relationships ideas, principals, and activities leading to one major theme." (Carol A Brown, "Using Logic Models for Program Planning in K20 Education", 2013)

"A diagram that presents the relationships between concepts." (Gwo-Jen Hwang, "Mobile Technology-Enhanced Learning", 2015)

"A graphical two-dimensional display of knowledge. Concepts, usually presented within boxes or circles, are connected by directed arcs that encode, as linking phrases, the relationships between the pairs of concepts." (Anna Ursyn, "Visualization as Communication with Graphic Representation", 2015)

"A graphical tool for representing knowledge structure in a form of a graph whose nodes represent concepts, while arcs between nodes correspond to interrelations between them." (Yigal Rosen & Maryam Mosharraf, "Evidence-Centered Concept Map in Computer-Based Assessment of Critical Thinking", 2016) 

"Is a directed graph that shows the relationship between the concepts. It is used to organize and structure knowledge." (Anal Acharya & Devadatta Sinha, "A Web-Based Collaborative Learning System Using Concept Maps: Architecture and Evaluation", 2016)

"A graphic depiction of brainstorming, which starts with a central concept and then includes all related ideas." (Carolyn W Hitchens et al, "Studying Abroad to Inform Teaching in a Diverse Society", 2017)

"A graphic visualization of the connections between ideas in which concepts (drawn as nodes or boxes) are linked by explanatory phrases (on arrows) to form a network of propositions that depict the quality of the mapper’s understanding" (Ian M Kinchin, "Pedagogic Frailty and the Ecology of Teaching at University: A Case of Conceptual Exaptation", 2019)

"A diagram in which related concepts are linked to each other." (Steven Courchesne &Stacy M Cohen, "Using Technology to Promote Student Ownership of Retrieval Practice", 2020)

Knowledge Management: Conceptual Model (Definitions)

"A conceptual model is a qualitative description of the system and includes the processes taking place in the system, the parameters chosen to describe the processes, and the spatial and temporal scales of the processes." (A Avogadro & R C Ragaini, "Technologies for Environmental Cleanup", 1993)

"A conceptual model is a model of the projected system that is independent of implementation details." (Michael Worboys, "GIS: A Computing Perspective", 1995)

"A conceptual model is what in the model theory is called a set of formulas making statements about the world." (Dickson Lukose [Eds.], "Conceptual Structures: Fulfilling Peirce's Dream" Vol 5, 1997)

"A conceptual model is a representation of the system expertise using this formalism. An internal model is derived from the conceptual model and from a specification of the system transactions and the performance constraints." (Zbigniew W. Ras & Andrzej Skowron [Eds.], Foundations of Intelligent Systems: 10th International Symposium Vol 10, 1997)

"A conceptual model is one which reflects reality by placing words which are concepts into the model in the same way that the model aeroplane builder puts wings, a fuselage, and a cockpit together." (Lynn Basford & ‎Oliver Slevin, "Theory and Practice of Nursing: An Integrated Approach to Caring Practice", 2003) 

"A conceptual model is simply a framework or schematic to understand the interaction of workforce education and development systems with other variables in a society." (Jay W Rojewski, "International Perspectives on Workforce Education and Development", 2004) 

"A conceptual model is a mental image of a system, its components, its interactions. It lays the foundation for more elaborate models, such as physical or numerical models. A conceptual model provides a framework in which to think about the workings of a system or about problem solving in general. An ensuing operational model can be no better than its underlying conceptualization." (Henry N Pollack, "Uncertain Science … Uncertain World", 2005)

"A particular kind of learning object design to be supplied to learners to support their mental modeling." (Daniel Churchill, "Mental Models" [in "Encyclopedia of Information Technology Curriculum Integration"], 2008)

"The concepts and constructs about real work things we have in our heads are called mental model." (Hassan Qudrat-Ullah, "System Dynamics Based Learning Environments" [in "Encyclopedia of Information Technology Curriculum Integration"], 2008)

"Representations of real or imaginary structure in the human mind enabling orientation as well as goal orientated actions and movements" (Ralf Wagner, "Customizing Multimedia with Multi-Trees" [in "Encyclopedia of Multimedia Technology and Networking" 2nd Ed.], 2009)

"A conceptual model is a qualitative description of 'some aspect of the behaviour of a natural system'. This description is usually verbal, but may also be accompanied by figures and graphs." (Howard S. Wheater et al., "Groundwater Modelling in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas, 2010) 

"[…] a conceptual model is a diagram connecting variables and constructs based on theory and logic that displays the hypotheses to be tested." (Mary Wolfinbarger Celsi et al, "Essentials of Business Research Methods", 2011) 

"A conceptual model of an interactive application is, in summary: the structure of the application - the objects and their operations, attributes, and relation-ships; an idealized view of the how the application works – the model designers hope users will internalize; the mechanism by which users accomplish the tasks the application is intended to support." (Jeff Johnson & Austin Henderson, "Conceptual Models", 2011)

"Simply put, a conceptual model is a simplified representation of reality, devised for a certain purpose and seen from a certain point of view."(David W Emble & Bernhard Thalheim, "Handbook of Conceptual Modeling", 2012) 

"Briefly, a conceptual model is the configuration of conceptual elements and the navigation between them. As such, a conceptual model is the foundation of the user interface of any interactive system." (Avi Parush, "Conceptual Design for Interactive Systems", 2015)

"A conceptual model is a framework that is initially used in research to outline the possible courses of action or to present an idea or thought. When a conceptual model is developed in a logical manner, it will provide a rigor to the research process." (N Elangovan & R Rajendran, "Conceptual Model: A Framework for Institutionalizing the Vigor in Business Research", 2015) 

"A model or conceptual model is a schematic or representation that describes how something works. We create and adapt models all the time without realizing it. Over time, as you gain more information about a problem domain, your model will improve to better match reality." (James Padolsey, "Clean Code in JavaScript", 2020)

Resources:
Quotes on "Conceptual Models" at the-web-of-knowledge.blogspot.com.

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