16 January 2006

OOP: Function (Definitions)

"(1) A defined objective or characteristic action of a system or component. For example, a system may have inventory control as its primary function. (2) A software module that performs a specific action, is invoked by the appearance of its name in an expression, may receive input values, and returns a single value." (IEEE," IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology", 1990) 

"A set of instructions that operates as a single logical unit, can be called by name, accepts input parameters, and returns information. In programming languages such as C, a function is a named subroutine of a program that encapsulates some logic. The function can be called by name, using parameters to pass data into the function and retrieve data produced by the function." (Microsoft Corporation, "SQL Server 7.0 System Administration Training Kit", 1999)

"A block of code that performs a service, such as adding two numbers or printing to the screen." (Jesse Liberty, "Sams Teach Yourself C++ in 24 Hours" 3rd Ed., 2001)

"A program that returns a value to the program or environment from which it is called." (Bill Pribyl & Steven Feuerstein, "Learning Oracle PL/SQL", 2001)

"A routine that processes data inside a program." (Greg Perry, "Sams Teach Yourself Beginning Programming in 24 Hours" 2nd Ed., 2001)

"A block of statements identified by a name that can accept one or more arguments passed to it by value and can optionally return a value. Functions can be local (static) to the file in which they're defined or global, in which case they can be called from functions or methods defined in other files." (Stephen G Kochan, "Programming in Objective-C", 2003)

"A named set of predefined programming language commands that performs a specific task given zero, one, or more arguments and returns a value." (Bob Bryla, "Oracle Database Foundations", 2004)

"A piece of code that operates as a single logical unit. A function is called by name, accepts optional input parameters, and returns a status and optional output parameters. Many programming languages support functions, including C, Visual Basic, and Transact-SQL. Transact-SQL supplies built-in functions, which cannot be modified, and supports user-defined functions, which can be created and modified by users." (Jim Joseph, "Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Reporting Services Unleashed", 2009)

"A block of statements identified by a name that can accept one or more arguments passed to it by value and can optionally return a value. Functions can be either local (static) to the file in which they’re defined or global, in which case they can be called from functions or methods defined in other files." (Stephen G Kochan, "Programming in Objective-C" 4th Ed., 2011)

"A packaged set of code that other pieces of code can invoke and that returns a result value." (Rod Stephens, "Stephens' Visual Basic Programming 24-Hour Trainer", 2011)

"A single block of code that accomplishes a single task and can be reused." (Matt Telles, "Beginning Programming", 2014)

13 January 2006

OOP: Aggregation (Definitions)

"A form of Unified Modeling Language (UML) association that denotes the grouping of multiple instances of one class into a composite entity." (Sharon Allen & Evan Terry, "Beginning Relational Data Modeling" 2nd Ed., 2005)

"Aggregation is the process of compiling information on an object, thereby abstracting a higher-level object." (S. Sumathi & S. Esakkirajan, "Fundamentals of Relational Database Management Systems", 2007)

"A special type of abstraction relationship that defines a higher-level entity that is an aggregate of several lower-level entities; a 'part-of' type relationship. For example, a bicycle entity would be an aggregate of wheel, handlebar, and seat entities." (Toby J Teorey, ", Database Modeling and Design" 4th Ed., 2010)

"In an object-oriented environment, a class that manages objects created from another class." (Jan L Harrington, "SQL Clearly Explained" 3rd Ed., 2010)



10 January 2006

OOP: Subclass (Definitions)

"A class that extends another class directly or indirectly. In Java, all classes (except Object itself) are subclasses of the class Object." (Marcus Green & Bill Brogden, "Java 2™ Programmer Exam Cram™ 2 (Exam CX-310-035)", 2003)

"Also known as a child class, a subclass inherits the methods and instance variables from its parent or superclass." (Stephen G Kochan, "Programming in Objective-C", 2003)

"A specialization of another class (the superclass). A subclass inherits the attributes and methods of the superclass." (Craig Larman, "Applying UML and Patterns", 2004)

"A class that is derived from a parent or superclass. Compare with superclass." (Michael Fitzgerald, "Learning Ruby", 2007)

"A class at the 'specific' end of an inheritance relationship; a child class." (Jan L Harrington, "SQL Clearly Explained" 3rd Ed., 2010)

"A class that is derived from a parent class. Also called a sub class or derived class." (Rod Stephens, "Start Here!™ Fundamentals of Microsoft® .NET Programming", 2011)

"The act of making a subclass from a parent class." (Rod Stephens, "Start Here!™ Fundamentals of Microsoft® .NET Programming", 2011)

"A class that defines some of its methods in terms of a more generic class, called a base class. Note that classes aren’t classified exclusively into base classes or derived classes: a class can function as both a derived class and a base class simultaneously, which is kind of classy." (Jon Orwant et al, "Programming Perl" 4th Ed., 2012)

"A class derived from a parent class. The child class inherits properties, methods, and events from the parent class." (Rod Stephens, "Beginning Software Engineering", 2015)

"If class A inherits from class B, then we say that 'A is a subclass of B'" (Nell Dale et al, "Object-Oriented Data Structures Using Java" 4th Ed., 2016)

"A class that extends another. The subclass inherits the public and protected methods and variables of its superclass. See also extends." (Daniel Leuck et al, "Learning Java" 5th Ed., 2020)

07 January 2006

OOP: Interface (Definitions)

"A contract that specifies the members a class or struct can implement to receive generic services for that type." (Jesse Liberty, "Programming C#" 2nd Ed., 2002)

"In Java, an interface is similar to a class definition, except that no detailed implementation of methods is provided. A class that implements an interface must provide the code to implement the methods. You can think of an interface as defining a contract between the calling method and the class that implements the interface." (Marcus Green & Bill Brogden, "Java 2™ Programmer Exam Cram™ 2 (Exam CX-310-035)", 2003)

"A set of signatures of public operations." (Craig Larman, "Applying UML and Patterns", 2004)

"A defined set of properties, methods, and collections that form a logical grouping of behaviors and data. Classes are defined by the interfaces that they implement. An interface can be implemented by many different classes." (Jim Joseph et al, "Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Reporting Services Unleashed", 2009)

"The specification of the means by which services can be invoked and data can be manipulated across an encapsulation boundary (e.g., class)." (Bruce P Douglass, "Real-Time Agility", 2009)

"The externally visible definition of the operations permitted on an application component." (David Lyle & John G Schmidt, "Lean Integration", 2010)

"Defines a set of members that a class can provide." (Rod Stephens, "Start Here! Fundamentals of Microsoft .NET Programming", 2011)

"Defines public properties, methods, and events that a class must provide to satisfy the interface." (Rod Stephens, "Stephens' Visual Basic Programming 24-Hour Trainer", 2011)

"A defined set of properties, methods, and collections that form a logical grouping of behaviors and data." (Microsoft, "SQL Server 2012 Glossary", 2012)

"The services a piece of code promises to provide forever, in contrast to its implementation, which it should feel free to change whenever it likes." (Jon Orwant et al, "Programming Perl" 4th Ed., 2012)

"A keyword used to declare an interface." (Daniel Leuck et al, "Learning Java" 5th Ed., 2020)

04 January 2006

OOP: Object (Definitions)

"The type all other types derive from." (Jesse Liberty, "Programming C# 2nd Ed.", 2002)

"A set of variables and associated methods. An object can be sent messages to cause one of its methods to be executed." (Stephen G Kochan, "Programming in Objective-C", 2003)

"A specific instance of a class." (Marcus Green & Bill Brogden, "Java 2™ Programmer Exam Cram™ 2 (Exam CX-310-035)", 2003)

"In the UML, an instance of a class that encapsulates state and behavior. More informally, an example of a thing." (Craig Larman, "Applying UML and Patterns", 2004)

"An instance of a class, a thing, an entity, or a concept that is represented in contiguous memory in a computer. See instance, class." (Michael Fitzgerald, "Learning Ruby", 2007)

"A unique instance of a data structure defined according to the template provided by its class. Each object has its own values for the variables belonging to its class, and can respond to the methods defined by its class." (Craig F Smith & H Peter Alesso, "Thinking on the Web: Berners-Lee, Gödel and Turing", 2008)

"A cohesive unit with a particular state, possible state transitions, and behaviors. In Scala, the keyword object is used to declare a singleton explicitly, using the same syntax as class declarations, except for the lack of constructor parameters and auxiliary parameters (because objects are instantiated by the Scala runtime, not by user code). To avoid confusion with objects, we use the term instance to refer to instances of classes and objects generically." (Dean Wampler & Alex Payne, "Programming Scala", 2009)

"A cohesive unit with a particular state, possible state transitions, and behaviors. In Java, an object is an instance of a class." (Dean Wampler, "Functional Programming for Java Developers", 2011)

"A structure consisting of data and methods together with their interactions. An object is not just data, but the encapsulation of its state (data) and behavior (methods)." (Craig S Mullins, "Database Administration", 2012)

"An instance of a class. Something that 'knows' what user-defined type (class) it is, and what it can do because of what class it is. Your program can request an object to do things, but the object gets to decide whether it wants to do them or not. Some objects are more accommodating than others." (Jon Orwant et al, "Programming Perl" 4th Ed., 2012)

"A passive entity that contains or receives information. Access to an object potentially implies access to the information that it contains. Examples of objects include records, pages, memory segments, files, directories, directory trees, and programs." (Shon Harris & Fernando Maymi, "CISSP All-in-One Exam Guide, 8th Ed", 2018)

"In object-oriented design or programming, an abstraction that consists of data and operations associated with that data." (Sybase, "Open Server Server-Library/C Reference Manual", 2019)

"In an object-oriented programming context, an object is an instance of a class or type." (Alex Thomas, "Natural Language Processing with Spark NLP", 2020)

"The fundamental structural unit of an object-oriented programming language, encapsulating a set of data and behavior that operates on that data." (Daniel Leuck et al, "Learning Java, 5th Ed.", 2020)

"An instance of a class." (Rod Stephens, "Beginning Software Engineering", 2015)

"An entity or thing that is relevant in the context of a problem" (Nell Dale & John Lewis, "Computer Science Illuminated, 6th Ed.", 2015)

03 January 2006

OOP: Class Diagram (Definitions)

"A Unified Modeling Language (UML) design artifact that shows the object classes and associations that exist between them. This is the rough UML equivalent of a data model." (Sharon Allen & Evan Terry, "Beginning Relational Data Modeling" 2nd Ed., 2005)

"A conceptual data model; a model of the static relationships between data elements of a system (similar to an ER diagram)." (Toby J Teorey, "Database Modeling and Design" 4th Ed., 2010)

"A type of diagram that shows a system's classes, contents, attributes, and relationships, including inheritance. UML is a common format for a class diagram." (DAMA International, "The DAMA Dictionary of Data Management", 2011)

"A type of static structure diagram that describes the structure of a system by showing the system's classes, their attributes, operations (or methods), and the relationships among the classes." (IQBBA, "Standard glossary of terms used in Software Engineering", 2011)

"Used to represent data and their relationships in UML object modeling system notation." (Carlos Coronel et al, "Database Systems: Design, Implementation, and Management" 9th Ed., 2011)

"In UML, a diagram that describes the classes that make up the system, their properties and methods, and their relationships." (Rod Stephens, "Beginning Software Engineering", 2015)

02 January 2006

OOP: Instance (Definitions)

"A concrete representation of a class. Instances are objects that are typically created by sending an alloc or new message to a class object." (Stephen G Kochan, "Programming in Objective-C", 2003)

"An object of a particular class is called an instance of that class." (Marcus Green & Bill Brogden, "Java 2 Programmer Exam Cram 2 (Exam CX-310-035)", 2003)

"An individual member of a class. In the UML, called an object." (Craig Larman, "Applying UML and Patterns", 2004)

"A concrete representation of a class. Instances are objects that are typically created by sending an alloc or new message to a class object." (Stephen G Kochan, "Programming in Objective-C" 4th Ed., 2011)

"A specific object that is of a class type." (Rod Stephens, "Start Here! Fundamentals of Microsoft .NET Programming", 2011)

"An instance of a class is an object of the class's type. Different instances of the same class have the same properties, methods, and events but they may have different property values." (Rod Stephens, "Stephens' Visual Basic Programming 24-Hour Trainer", 2011)

"Another term for an object created by invoking a class constructor or a value of a primitive type." (Dean Wampler, "Functional Programming for Java Developers", 2011)

"(1) An occurrence of an entity. (2) The implementation of a database server (e.g., an Oracle instance)." (Craig S Mullins, "Database Administration: The Complete Guide to DBA Practices and Procedures 2nd Ed", 2012)

"In a map pattern one invocation of an elemental function on one element of the map." (Michael McCool et al, "Structured Parallel Programming", 2012)

"Short for 'an instance of a class', meaning an object of that class." (Jon Orwant et al, "Programming Perl" 4th Ed., 2012)

"One occurrence of something that has many occurrences, such as entities or objects." (James Robertson et al, "Complete Systems Analysis: The Workbook, the Textbook, the Answers", 2013)

"An entity to which a set of operations can be applied and that has a state that stores the effects of the operations." (Sybase, "Open Server Server-Library/C Reference Manual", 2019)

"An occurrence of something, usually an object. When a class is instantiated to produce an object, we say the object is an instance of the class." (Daniel Leuck et al, "Learning Java, 5th Ed.", 2020)

01 January 2006

OOP: Class (Definitions)

"In object-oriented software design, a blueprint or set of specifications that defines the characteristics of an object and describes how the object should behave. In Object Role Modeling, an object role model can be used as the basis for an entity-relationship-attribute logical data model. The data can then be easily shared with other applications in the enterprise to form an enterprise logical model. In Microsoft Repository, an information model includes classes, relationships, and properties. This information model can be shared across the enterprise." (Microsoft Corporation, "Microsoft SQL Server 7.0 Data Warehouse Training Kit", 2000)

"A description of an object and its properties." (Greg Perry, "Sams Teach Yourself Beginning Programming in 24 Hours" 2nd Ed., 2001)

"The definition of a new type. A class is implemented as data and related functions." (Jesse Liberty, "Sams Teach Yourself C++ in 24 Hours" 3rd Ed., 2001)

"The specification of an object type in object-oriented programming (OOP), although not all OOP languages use this term." (Bill Pribyl & Steven Feuerstein, "Learning Oracle PL/SQL", 2001)

"An extendable reference type that combines data and functionality into one unit." (Jesse Liberty, "Programming C# "2nd Ed., 2002)

"A set of instance variables and methods that have access to those variables. After a class is defined, instances of the class (that is, objects) can be created." (Stephen G Kochan, "Programming in Objective-C", 2003)

"In the UML, “The descriptor of a set of objects that share the same attributes, operations, methods, relationships, and behavior” [RJB99]. May be used to represent software or conceptual elements." (Craig Larman, "Applying UML and Patterns", 2004)

"A collection of code, including methods and variables called members. The code in a class sets the rules for objects of the given class. See instance, module, object." (Michael Fitzgerald, "Learning Ruby", 2007)

"A template for instances that will have the same fields, representing state values, and the same methods. Scala classes support single inheritance and zero or more mixin traits. Contrast with type." (Dean Wampler & Alex Payne, "Programming Scala", 2009)

"The specification of an object instance; an encapsulation boundary including data (attributes) and behavior (operations that manipulate that data)." (Bruce P Douglass, "Real-Time Agility: The Harmony/ESW Method for Real-Time and Embedded Systems Development", 2009)

"A declaration of data and methods that describe a single entity and that will be used as a template to create objects." (Jan L Harrington, "SQL Clearly Explained" 3rd Ed., 2010)

"A set of instance variables and methods that have access to those variables. After a class is defined, instances of the class (that is, objects) can be created." (Stephen G Kochan, "Programming in Objective-C" 4th Ed., 2011)

"A template for creating instances. A class defines implementation of methods and fields. A class defines type." (Dean Wampler, "Functional Programming for Java Developers", 2011)

"Defines a data type with properties, methods, events, and other code encapsulated in a package. After you define a class, you can make as many instances of that class as you like. Very similar to a structure except classes are reference types, whereas structures are value types." (Rod Stephens, "Stephens' Visual Basic Programming 24-Hour Trainer", 2011)

"A construct that works as the blueprint for objects." (Mark C Lewis, "Introduction to the Art of Programming Using Scala", 2012)

"A user-defined type, implemented in Perl via a package that provides (either directly or by inheritance) methods (that is, subroutines) to handle instances of the class (its objects). See also inheritance." (Jon Orwant et al, "Programming Perl" 4th Ed., 2012)

"The encapsulation of a set of functions and data that model a real-world object. Creating a class is like creating a blueprint for a bunch of objects of a given type." (Matt Telles, "Beginning Programming", 2014)

"In object-oriented programming, a construct that defines a type (or class) of items. For example, if you define a Customer class, you can then create many Customer objects representing different real-world customers." (Rod Stephens, "Beginning Software Engineering", 2015)

"In C++, a user-defined data type. A class data type can contain both data representations (data members) and functions (member functions). A description of a set of objects that share the same attributes, operations, methods, relationships, and semantics. A class can use a set of interfaces to specify collections of operations that it provides to its environment." (Sybase, "Open Server Server-Library/C Reference Manual", 2019)

"Abstract entity that represents a kind of things in the world and may serve as semantic type of other entities." (Panos Alexopoulos, "Semantic Modeling for Data", 2020)

"The fundamental unit that defines an object in most object-oriented programming languages. A class is an encapsulated collection of variables and methods that may have privileged access to one another. Usually a class can be instantiated to produce an object that’s an instance of the class, with its own unique set of data." (Daniel Leuck et al, "Learning Java, 5th Ed.", 2020)

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